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ANT 253 Exam 2 Themes
Terms in this set (21)
What does it mean to describe a society as complex?
Complex societies have stratification (hierarchy), larger populations (size) and agricultural surplus
How do size, surplus and stratification interrelate
Using horticulture and agriculture to move from subsistence foraging to a surplus of food, means you can support a larger population and that people can specialize (not everyone forages). Specialization leads to stratification
How and why did centralized, stratified states emerge in different parts of the world
Surplus supported larger populations, trade with other states, specilization/stratification.
Mesopotamia: How did leaders mobilize surpus in early sites? for what purpose, what kind of surplus?
Mesopotamia - centralization to control flow of goods/labor; mobilization: convinced people to participate. Redistribution - dispersed pooled resources
Early sites from each region
Mesopotamia Ur: Egypt Nile Valley/Thebes/Giza:
All 4 called states: Cities with large territory, ruling elite, hierarchy, monopoly of force
Traditions established before emergence of states
grave goods, ceremonial burials, art, families/tribes sharing goods
Mediterrean Minoan Region: size, surplus, stratification, political organization, monuments, writing, violence and connections to other cultures
Surplus of wheat, animals, grapes, olives, pottery, Linear A/Linear B writing. Palaces and temples. Forts (citidels), bridges, tombs
How did the history of colonalism shape our understanding of these sites and civilizations?
What role did the environment play in shaping civilizations in the Old World? What challenges did it create? What solutions emerged? To what extent is it implicated in the collapse of civilizations?
Mesopotamia - swamps/flood plains
Egypt: Nile river, flood plains
Mediterranean: ocean, islands, shipping
Indus Valley: might have experienced climate change that impacted surplus or trade routes
Mesopotamia Region: size, surplus, stratification, political organization, monuments, writing, violence and connections to other cultures
10 to 15 city-states with 50,000 each.
Mud brick structures, pottery, domesticated animals, grains, irrigation, plow, wheel, Ziggurats, Cuneiform writing) stratification (Priests)10
soldiers became farmers, wealthy and priests
Egypt Region by size, surplus, stratification, political organization, monuments, writing, violence and connections to other cultures
Nile farming produced surplus of wine, dates, pigs, etc. Hierakonpolis (Nekhen) had temples, kilns, breweries. Heiroglyphic writing. Pyramids!
Egypt Hierakonpolis specialization/stratification
specialization - work with stone, metal, papyrus. Stratification; elite tombs for higher rank
Egypt: How did leaders mobilize surplus in early sites? for what purpose, what kind of surplus?
Mobilize: Pharoahs used symbols of power to mobile labor slaves, prisoners, craftsman (Phyles = work teams)
Mediterranean: How did leaders mobilize surplus in early sites? for what purpose, what kind of surplus?
Mobilize: shipping, colonizing, food, metal work, pottery, art
Indus Valley Region: size, surplus, stratification, political organization, monuments, writing, violence and connections to other cultures
Farming; sickles, cattle, cotton. 5,000,000 people! Urban planning, civic architecture (not just for rich). Sanitation! Indus Script. Minimal stratificaition, not really a lot of rulers, monuments or army. Rarely see weapons,
Indus Valley: How did leaders mobilize surplus in early sites? for what purpose, what kind of surplus?
Mobilized long distance trade, oils, textiles, beads, bangles.
Indus Valley specialization/stratification
Lots of specialization - crafts, trade, etc. But not a lot of stratification. No evidence of rulers, most art/building was for general population
Why do states form?
States form through coercion (violence, warfare or integration (mangement/problem solving or power seekers)
Pros for States
increased access to goods
state sponsored events
Cons for states
reduced trading autonomy
labor demands on poor
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ANT 253 Exam Terms
ANT 253 Exam 2 more terms
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