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628 Exam 2
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Gravity
Key Concepts:
Terms in this set (59)
discrete variables
Consists of separate, indivisible categories. No values can exist between two neighboring categories.
dichotomous variables
a type of discrete variable that can take on only two values
continuous variables
can take on any value along a continuum within a defined range
validity
refers to the extent to which a measurement measures what it is intended to measure; aka "accuracy"
reliability
refers to consistency and reproducibility of results; aka "precision"
construct
variables that represent abstract concepts what are inferred by measuring relevant or correlated behaviors that are observable
nominal
scale where objects or people are assigned categories according to some criterion
nominal
gender, marital status, and clinical diagnosis are examples of what scale
ordinal
scale that requires categories be rank-ordered on the basis of an operationally defined characteristic or property
ordinal
EQ-5D Health Questionnaire, SF-12 Health survey, and MS impact scale are all examples of what scale
interval
scale that possess the rank-order characteristics and demonstrates known and equal intervals between the units of measurements; "true zero" does NOT exist
interval
temperature, calendar years, and IQ are all examples of what scale
ratio
scale that is the highest level of measurement; basically interval scale with an absolute zero point
ratio
weight, length, length of time, and speed are all examples of what scale
parameter
a characteristic of the population in which we have a particular interest
statistic
a characteristic of the sample
descriptive statistics
the numerical, graphic, and tabular techniques for organizing, presenting, and analyzing data; used to characterize the shape, central tendency, and variability within a set of data
distribution
total set of scores for a particular variable
frequency distribution
a summary of the frequency of various outcomes in a sample
relative frequency distribution
a summary of the frequency proportion of various outcomes in a sample
cumulative frequency distribution
a summary of the sum of relative frequency that lie above or below a particular value in a data set
array
an arrangement of rank-ordered scores
mode
the score that occurs most frequently in a distribution
median
the value above which there are as many scores as below it
mean
the sum of a set of scores divided by the number of scores; average
shape
distribution is used to describe the --- of the total set of scores for a particular variable
center
central tendency is used to measure different concepts of the --- of a distribution
diversity
measure of variability is used to measure the --- of a distribution
variability
can be measured with the range, inter-quartile range, and variance/standard deviation
distance
variability is determined by measuring
interval/ratio
the range is a measure of variability in --- variables
percentile
lines the data up from lowest to highest and divides data into 100 equal portions
quartile
divide a distribution into four equal parts
Q2
which quartile is the median
inter-quartile range
the distance between the first and third quartile
variance
measure of variation for interval/ratio variables
variance
defined as the average of the squared deviations from the mean
standard deviation
the square root of the variance
probability density function
used to describe a continuous probability distribution
ranges
probability is associated with --- of values
shape
the standard deviation of a normal distribution determines the
location
the mea of a normal distribution determines the
68
percent of the area under a normal distribution within one standard deviation of the mean
95
percent of the area of a normal distribution wthinin two standard deviations of the mean
z-score
a measure of an observation's distance from the mean of a normal distribution
sampling error
difference between sample statistics and population parameters due to random selection of sample
sampling bias
caused due to selection of non representative sample; using NBA players to estimate the average height of the US population
population distribution
distribution of all individual scores in the population
sample distribution
distribution of all the scores in the sample
sampling distribution of means
distribution of all the possible sample means when taking samples of size n from the population; aka distribution of sample means
central limit theorem
the sampling distribution of means approximates a normal curve
null hypothesis
a hypothesis to be tested; Ho
alternative hypothesis
a hypothesis to be considered as an alternative to the null hypothesis; Ha
hypothesis test
used to decide whether the null hypothesis should be rejected in favor of the alternative hypothesis
significance level
the probability of rejecting a true null hypothesis (type 1 error)
p value
the probability that we would have seen our sample data just by chance if the null hypothesis is true
type 1
false positive error; telling a man that he's pregnant
type 2
false negative error; telling a pregnant woman that she isn't pregnant
point estimate
the single value of a statistic used to estimate the parameter
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