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Biology 9th grade

Biology
STUDY
PLAY
Biology
the study of life
steps to the scientific method (6)
1. identify the problem
2. make a hypothesis
3. create experiment
4. perform experiment
5. analyze data
6. publish lab
independant variable
what you change in the experiment that will test the subject
dependant variable
the change that is caused by the independant variable.
control
serves as a standard, or comparison.
scientific theory
system of ideas supported by evidence, and explains many observations
scientific laws
truths that are found across the universe.
opinion
bias point of view
What do microscopes do?
enlarge images of small objects
thermometers..
measure tempuratures
balances..
measure mass
measures length
meter (m)
measures mass
gram (g)
measures tempurature
farenhite/ celcius
measures volume
liter (l)
properties of life
metabolism, homostasias, reproduction, hereditary, evolution
metabolism
sum of all chemical reactions
homostasias
maintain stable internal conditions
reproduction
the sexual activity of conceiving and bearing offspring
hereditary
genetically transmitted or transmittable from parent to offspring
evolution
change over time
total magnification
ocular lens x objective lens
autotrophs
organisms that make their own food
heterotrophs
organisms that cannot make their own food
consumers
an organism that obtains energy and nutrients by feeding on other organisms or their remains.
primary consumer
An organism that eats producers
secondary consumer
An organism that eats primary consumers
decomposers
organisms that break down wastes and dead organisms and return raw materials to the environment
producer
an organism that makes its own food
predators
animals that prey on others
prey
animal hunted or caught for food
food chain
a series of steps in which organisms transfer energy by eating and being eaten
food web
(ecology) a community of organisms where there are several interrelated food chains
tropic level
each step in a food chain or food web
population
a group of organisms of the same species populating a given area
community
a group of interdependent organisms inhabiting the same region and interacting with each other
echosystems
all the living and nonliving things in an environment including their interactions with each other
habitat
Place where an Organism lives
niche
physical use of habitat and function with ecological community
biotic
living things
abiotic
non living things
limiting factors
Conditions in the environment that put limits on where an organism can live
ecological succession
gradual change in living communities that follows a disturbance
biodiversity
the variety of species living within an ecosystem
atom
basic unit of matter
proton
positively charged particle
neutron
an elementary particle with 0 charge and mass about equal to a proton
electron
an elementary particle with negative charge
atomic number
number of protons
atomic mass
protons + neutrons
ionic bond
Formed when one or more electrons are transferred from one atom to another
covalent bond
A shared pair of electrons., a chemical bond that involves sharing a pair of electrons between atoms in a molecule
organic compound
contains carbon
mixutre
2 or more substances mixed together in various portions
homogeneous mixture
a mixture in which substances are evenly distributed throughout the mixture
heterogenius mixture
can see different parts of the mixture (salt and pepper)
solutes
mixtures when both substances are evenly mixed
solvents
dissolves the solute
solute
dissolves in the solvent
ph scale
A range of numbers used to describe how acidic or basic a solution is; ranges from 0 (most acidic) to 14 (most basic). 7 is neutral
reactant
a chemical substance that is present at the start of a chemical reaction
product
a chemical substance formed as a result of a chemical reaction
enzymes
protein substances that speed up chemical reactions.
what effects ph?
tempurature
exothermic
gives off heat
endothermic
takes in heat c
cell
(biology) the basic structural and functional unit of all organisms
prokaryotic
having cells that lack membrane-bound nuclei
eukaryotic
having cells with 'good' or membrane-bound nuclei
what does a plant cell have that an animal cell does not?
a cell wall, chloroplast, central vacuole
what does an animal cell have that a plant cell does not?
vesicals, mitochondria
cell membrane
a thin membrane around the cytoplasm of a cell
cytoplasm
a jellylike fluid inside the cell in which the organelles are suspended
ribosomes
make proteins
nucleus
a part of the cell containing DNA and RNA and responsible for growth and reproduction
vesicle
A membrane bound sac that contains materials involved in transport of the cell.
rough ER
That portion of the endoplasmic reticulum studded with ribosomes.
smooth ER
That portion of the endoplasmic reticulum that is free of ribosomes. (lipid synthesis occurs here)
vacuole
a tiny cavity filled with fluid in the cytoplasm of a cell (plant cell
chloroplast
an organelle found in plant and algae cells where photosynthesis occurs
mitochondria
Powerhouse of the cell, organelle that is the site of ATP (energy) production
flagella
tails that transport cells through surrounding enviroment
tissue
group of cells with similar functions
organs
structures that carry out specialized jobs within an organ system
lipid bilayer
structure of membrane, two sheets of lipid molcules with tails pointed inward, proteins embedded in bilayer (serve as channels) along with carbohydrate molecules (id markers - recognition)
selective permeability
a process in which a membrane allows some molecules to pass through while keeping others out
hypotonic
when comparing two solutions, the solution with the lesser concentration of solutes
hypertonic
when comparing two solutions, the solution with the greater concentration of solutes
isotonic
(used of solutions) having the same or equal osmotic pressure
diffusion
process by which molecules tend to move from an area where they are more concentrated to an area where they are less concentrated
osmosis
diffusion of water through a selectively permeable membrane
active transport
the movement of materials through a cell membrane using energy
cellular respiration
process that releases energy by breaking down glucose and other food molecules in the presence of oxygen
ATP
(adenosine triphosphate) main energy source that cells use for most of their work
ADP
adenosine diphosphate; molecule that ATP becomes when it gives up one of its three phosphate groups