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100 question test
Terms in this set (87)
-The perception of bodily movements
-Experiencing an emotion while an event happens, then associating that event with the emotion in the future
-Commands given to a person in a hypnotic state that they act upon after they wake.
-A cognitive bias that makes a person only use an object in the way it is traditionally used.
early speech stage in which a child speaks like a telegram—"go car"—using mostly nouns and verbs.
neurons that carry outgoing information from the brain and spinal cord to the muscles and glands
the process of observing and imitating a specific behavior
the process of keeping information in short-term memory by mentally repeating it
an organized whole
a branch of psychology that studies, assesses, and treats people with psychological disorders
in group bias
tendency to favor individuals within our group over those from outside our group
A process that results in adaptation of an organism to its enviroment by means of selectivity reproducing chagnes in its genotype. Variations that increase an organism's chances of survival and procreation are preserved and multiplied from generation to generation at the expense of less advantageous variations
the immediate, very brief recording of sensory information in the memory system
a firm sense of who one is and what one stands for
the minimum stimulation needed to detect a particular stimulus 50 percent of the time
a tendency to search for information that confirms one's preconceptions
-an agent or factor which causes malformation of an embryo.
a desire to perform a behavior effectively for its own sake
Accommodation vs. Assimilation
using one's existing schema to interpret info vs. adapting one's schema to incorporate new info.
-the ability of the brain to simultaneously process incoming stimuli of differing quality
the principle that, to be perceived as different, two stimuli must differ by a constant minimum percentage (rather than a constant amount)
the enhancement of a group's prevailing inclinations through discussion within the group
that eerie sense that "I've experienced this before." Cues from the current situation may subconsciously trigger retrieval of an earlier experience.
"morphine within"--natural, opiatelike neurotransmitters linked to pain control and to pleasure.
mere exposure effect
the tendency for liking to increase with the frequency of exposure
a sleep disorder characterized by temporary cessations of breathing during sleep and repeated momentary awakenings
A monocular cue for perceiving depth; the more parallel lines converge, the greater their perceived distance.
long-term potentiation (LTP)
an increase in a synapse's firing potential after brief, rapid stimulation. Believed to be a neural basis for learning and memory.
strategies for enhancing memory
a self-confirming concern that one will be evaluated based on a negative stereotype
binocular depth cues
clues about distance based on the differing views of the two eyes
division of the nervous system
Central Nervous System (CNS) and Peripheral Nervous System (PNS)
automatic vs effortful processing
Automatic is often unconscious and the mind automatically processes steps and information for the task, effortful requires attention in order to understand and process information.
positive vs negative reinforcement
Positive- increasing behaviors by presenting positive stimuli, such as food. A positive reinforcer is any stimulus that, when presented after a response, strengthens the response. Negative- increasing behaviors by stopping or reducing negative stimuli, such as shock, a negative reinforcer is any stimulus that, when removed after a response, strengthens the response.
A measure of the extent to which two factors vary together, and thus of how well either factor predicts the other.
responding similarly to a range of similar stimuli
very specific, step-by-step procedures for solving certain types of problems
explicit vs implicit memory
Explicit memory - consciously acting to recall/recognize particular info. Ex. trying to remember a list of words you just saw.
Implicit memory - recalling/recognizing info w/out consciously being aware of doing so. Ex. remembering meanings of words as you read without trying
networks of nerve cells that integrate sensory input and motor output
the awareness that things continue to exist even when not perceived
behaviorism; emphasis on external behaviors of people and their reactions on a given situation; famous for Little Albert study in which baby was taught to fear a white rat
secure, avoidant, ambivalent, disorganized
monocular depth cues
cues of depth perception that are available to each eye alone
"I knew it all along"
Whorf's hypothesis that language determines the way we think
types of encoding
visual, acoustic, semantic
the process of getting information out of memory storage
a sudden and often novel realization of the solution to a problem; it contrasts with strategy-based solutions
a person's characteristic emotional reactivity and intensity
the relatively permanent storage of information
phonemes vs. morphemes
phonemes- in language, the smallest distinctive sound unit. (p. 383)
morphemes- in a language, the smallest unit that carries meaning; may be a word or part of a word (such as a prefix). (p. 384)
according to Freud, a lingering focus of pleasure-seeking energies at an earlier psychosexual stage, in which conflicts were unresolved
in classical conditioning, the learned ability to distinguish between a conditioned stimulus and stimuli that do not signal an unconditioned stimulus
the hopelessness and passive resignation an animal or human learns when unable to avoid repeated aversive events
a nerve network in the brainstem that plays an important role in controlling arousal
the belief that others are paying more attention to our appearance and behavior than they really are
tests that are normally designed by professional testmakers for nationwide use and are commerically distributed
a type of learning in which behavior is strengthened if followed by a reinforcer or diminished if followed by a punisher
glands that secrete chemicals called hormones directly into the bloodstream
a mental image or best example of a category
founder of classical conditioning while trying to study digestive system
Manifest vs Latent Content
Manifest: what the client says
Latent: how the therapist interprets it, what it really means
The path a neural impulse
will follow through the different layers of the retina
punishment vs reinforcement
Both +/- reinforcers STRENGTHEN response, but
punishment only DECREASES it
the tendency to be more confident than correct
Asch's conformity study
Participants were asked to select the line closest in line to length X. When cohorts gave obviously wrong answers, more than 1/3 of the subjects conformed and agreed with the incorrect choices. Depends on group size: 7 is optimal.
created the forgetting curve and serial position effect in memory
aptitude vs. achievement
a natural talent or ability; quickness in learning vs. something done that takes skill or effort
the way an issue is posed
Skinner's Operant Conditioning
Believed you could use a system of positive and negative reinforcements to affect voluntary behavior
Heuristics and Biases
simplify and reduce the information needed for decision making.
internal vs external locus of control
internal = one controls own's life
external = outside forces dictate one's life
iconic vs echoic memory
iconic (visual) and echoic (auditory)
Socrates, Plato, Descartes
They believed the mind and body are distinct.
the biological clock; regular bodily rhythms (for example, of temperature and wakefulness) that occur on a 24-hour cycle
the widely used American revision of Binet's original intelligence test
the processing of information into the memory system
availability vs representativeness
availability = actual memories in mind, representativeness = not thinking of exact memories, thinking of a prototype of idea.
something which has a positive mental effect, but no physical effect
activated memory that holds a few items briefly before the information is stored or forgotten
organizing items into familiar, manageable units
sets of behavioral norms assumed to accompany one's status as male or female
the chronological age that most typically corresponds to a given level of performance
a readiness to perceive oneself favorably
brief auditory or visual messages that are presented below the absolute threshold
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