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Psych 110 Test 3
Terms in this set (46)
The first step in memory; the process by which information gets into memory storage
The ability to maintain attention to a selected stimulus for a prolonged period of time
sustained attention (aka vigilance)
Refers to the formation of a number of different connections around a stimulus at any given level of memory encoding
The system of memory that holds information for time frames of a fraction of a second to several seconds
refers to auditory sensory memory, which is retained for up to several seconds
Refers to visual memory, which is retained only for about a quarter of a second
The method of improving short-term memory that involves the conscious repetition of information
The process of packing information that exceeds the 7 ± 2 memory span into higher order units in order to expand short term memory
The conscious recollection of information, such as specific facts or events and, at least in humans, information that can be verbally communicated
explicit memory (aka declarative memory)
A type of long-term memory in which an individual's behavior is affected by prior experience without a conscious recollection of that experience
implicit memory (aka non-declarative memory)
The activation of information that people already have in storage to help them remember new information better and faster
Which brain structure, which is part of the limbic system, is involved in emotional memories?
In the context of memory storage, which brain structure is especially active when an individual retrieves information from memory?
right frontal lobe
The memory of emotionally significant events that people often recall with more accuracy and vivid imagery than everyday events
Different age groups are tested at the same time in what type of study related to developmental psychology?
A person's ability to recover from or adapt to difficult times
The germinal period begins during
the first 2 weeks after conception
The heart begins to beat during what period?
Piaget's term for the crucial accomplishment of
understanding that objects and events continue to exist even when they cannot directly be seen, heard, or touched
An individual's ability to adjust his or her schema to new information
Refers to an individual's behavioral style and characteristic way of responding
An infant cries very often and faces difficulties in adapting to new situations. According to Alexander Chess and Stella Thomas, which of the temperament styles would best describe him?
difficult child (?)
The period of rapid skeletal and sexual maturation that takes place at the beginning of adolescence
Which of the following is the preferred parenting style for most adolescents?
Contact comfort is more important than feeding in the attachment process is the work of whom?
Children whose parents follow ________ tend to be less competent socially, to handle independence poorly, and to show poor self-control.
The main class of male sex hormones
A pattern of enduring, distinctive thoughts, emotions, and behaviors that characterize the way an individual adapts to the world
Perspectives on personality emphasize that personality is primarily unconscious
For Sigmund Freud, which of the following was the most important motivator in human life?
According to Freud's psychoanalytic theory, the ego abides by the ________ principle.
The Freudian term for the tactics that the ego uses to reduce anxiety by unconsciously distorting reality
Defense mechanisms; denial
According to Abraham Maslow, ________ is the motivation to develop to one's full potential as a human being.
An important element of Carl Rogers' humanistic theory
self-concept; unconditional positive regard
Means being accepted, valued, and treated supportively regardless of one's behavior
Unconditional positive regard
Identifies which traits go together in terms of how they are rated
Alfred Adler believed that birth order
influenced how successfully a person strives for superiority
According to Jung's analytic theory, emotionally laden ideas and images that have rich and symbolic meaning for all people are known as
According to the five-factor model of personality, a person who is incapable of being calm and satisfied with oneself or others is likely to rate high on
The neurotransmitter most closely linked to learning that certain behaviors are rewarding
According to Bandura, ________ is the belief that one has the competence to accomplish a given goal or task and produce positive change
The study of the inherited underpinnings of behavioral characteristics
Eysenck viewed ________ as characteristic behavioral patterns that aim to regulate arousal around an individual's baseline level
introversion and extroversion
According to ________, the person, the person's behavior, and the environment all influence one another in a pattern of two-way causal links
In the five-factor model of personality, ________ is most closely related to liberal values, tolerance, and creativity
In the context of personality assessment, the ________ directly asks people whether specific items describe their personality traits
THIS SET IS OFTEN IN FOLDERS WITH...
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