CDAE 127 Exam #1
Terms in this set (43)
buying expensive services and products in order to flaunt your wealth
How did Thorstein Veblen view spending?
as a vehicle for people to establish their social position
lower-income people trying to emulate the consumption of the rich
What was and is now the standard for comparison in terms of consumption?
Was: neighbors Is: co-workers/meida
What did the media create in terms of consumption?
It created different reference points for comparison; stretched them vertically; created a "winner-take-all" society
What did different reference groups do?
exposure to diverse people and an "upward" comparison
What did T.V. do in terms of reaching types of audiences? How has it changed?
Used to focus advertising on groups of people based on their incomes; now with T.V., they can display the same advertisements to a range of income groups/financial group
What is an imagined community?
socially constructed, imagined by the people who perceive themselves as part of that group (media helps create them) Ex. nation
patterns of consumption reflect how people spend time, money, = enact self concept; look at patterns of behavior to understand consumers
What happened as a result of competitive consumption?
a rise in credit card debt and consumer spending
Attitude change in the opposite direction of what the message advocated; listeners driven away from rather than drawn to an idea.
What's the consequence of "want" becoming "need?"
people continually increasing their consumption but feeling like they're barely or just making it
consumer satisfaction & dissatisfaction
depend less about what a person has in absolute sense than on the socially formed aspirations /expectations
What does "standard of living" suggest?
That this "standard" is the norm and that we should expect to be there
consumer behavior model influences
Internal: perception, learning, motives, personality
External: culture, social status, reference groups
Name the 3 types of reference influence
1. informational 2. normative 3. identification
Upward pull strategy
middle class--> aspirations to belong to upper-middle class; prefer products consumed by them
Neoclassical: credit card debt
individuals solely responsible for
Veblenian: credit card debt
economic behavior = both socially/individually determined
What does conspicuous consumption also create?
Explain the 1978 Marquette Decision
Supreme Court ruling that only the usury ceiling of the state in which the bank was located could restrict the interest rate banks could charge; banks could move to states w/o usury laws = increase in credit card use, supply & demand
What are some factors that caused the U.S. household savings collapse?
consumer spending, economic policy, popular culture
What is the installment plan?
permits customers to buy goods w/o paying in full; created unsustainable desires in consumers to live off "future income"
demands of the fast-food industry have forced industries that service it to McDonaldization in order to satisfy it insatiable demands
What did vertical mcdonaldization cause?
"McJobs"; workers forced to work "efficiently"/predictable; cheap pay, easy to replace
What is the key point of "No Logo?"
we've gone from an economy dominated by production to dominated by branding
downside of branding
money spent on brand vs. maintenance of skilled workers etc.
branding and the stock market
money spent on brand and labor costs cut in order to demonstrate increasing profits in the stock market
What was Philip Morris' idea behind lifestyle marketing?
identify core similarities in lifestyles/needs of young consumers worldwide (freedom, comfort, independence)
What are the differences between "standardization" and "adaptation" marketing?
standardization: same/basic advertisements & promo strategies used across diff. markets
adaptation: develop advertisements & promo strategies to meet conditions in a particular market
What're the 3 avenues to utopia?
the escape of space, time & subject
What 3 utopian figures match up with the avenues for escape?
nature - space
childhood - time
body - subject
What are the 4 main aspects of Schwartz's value system?
1. openness to change
2. self-transcendence (above the normal range of physical human experience)
What is intertextuality and what has it done?
it's the relationship between texts; blurred lines between advertising texts & other media texts
What is "cultural cannibalism?"
when ads make explicit references to other media
What is a "subculture?" What does it create?
a segment of a larger culture whose members share distinguishing values & patterns of behavior = eventually creating unique market behaviors for an individual
What are the 4 types of subculture?
ethnic, regional, generational, religious
What are 4 key tools used in the food marketing environment?
products, promotions, place & price
What was the FCC rule for commercial time towards children?
10.5 min/hr on weekends and 12 min/hr on weekdays
What is classical conditioning?
using the established relationship between one stimulus and one response to create the same response with a diff. stimulus
What is operant conditioning?
rewarding desirable behavior (like brand purchases) w/a positive outcome that serves to reinforce behavior
What is hegemony?
the process by which one set of meanings is produced regularly & accepted as credible to the point where it is taken for granted
Name the 3 categories of DTC ads
Reminder (name manufacturer and drug) , Helpseeking (name manufacturer & disease), ads that directly link disease and drug that can treat it