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Bio Chapter 14 Study Guide
Terms in this set (58)
Know how to calculate half life
Look over time era and periods
know time of mammals and dinosaurs, and humans and their periods and eras.
Living things can't come from
non living things
are used to date fossils- Carbon-14
All living things come from other living things
living things could arise from nonliving things
Methods of establishing the age of materials
Atoms of the same element that differ in the number of neutrons they contain
of an isotope, the total number of protons and neutrons in the atomic nucleus
nuclei release particles or radiant energy, or both until the nuclei is stable
isotopes with unstable nuclei
spherical in shape and are composed of many protein molecules that are organized as a membrane
collections of droplets that are composed of molecules of different types, including lipids, amino acids, and sugars
RNA molecule that can catalyze specific chemical reactions
group of single-celled organisms that lack a nucleus but are more closely related to eukaryotes than to bacteria
a carbon source for the assembly of organic molecules
a group of photosynthetic, unicellular prokaryotes
atoms react with O2
symbotic organism lives inside another
the length of time it takes for one-half of any size sample of an isotope to decay to a stable form
the action of changing or the state of being changed into another form
Nucleus in cell division, divides, gives rise to two or more daughter nuclei.
Original nucleus remaining after decay
formula for half life
Before the 1600's it was generally thought that organisms could arise from nonliving material by _____________
Redi showed in 1668 that rotting meat kept away from flies would not produce new flies
Maggots appeared only on meat that had been exposed to flies
__________ showed in the 1700s that microorganisms would not grow in broth when its container was heated then sealed
He inferred that microorganisms do not arise spontaneously but, rather, are _______________ in the air.
carried (vital force)
Scientists think that Earth formed more than ______________ years ago by the gravitational accumulation of dust and debris moving through space.
_________ are atoms with varying numbers of neutrons
The ages of rocks and other materials can be determined by measuring the amount of __________ ___________ that has occurred in radioactive isotopes found in samples of those materials.
An isotopes _______-_______ is the time total that one-half of a sample of the isotope takes to decay
The first simple organic compounds on early Earth may have formed under conditions of high _____________ and in atmosphere very different from that of today's Earth.
Further chemical reactions may have converted simple ________ compounds into macro-molecules important to _________.
These conditions have been experimentally ____________.
___________ may have brought __________ compounds to Earth.
Cell like structures, including _________ and ___________, from ____________ certain kinds of solutions.
These structures could have been a step in the formation of modern cells but lack ____________ material.
Scientists ___________ to investigate many hypotheses about the origins of organic molecules and cells in Earth's history
The first molecule that held hereditary information may have been ________ rather than DNA.
In addition to serving as a template for protein assembly, some RNA molecules can act as _________-______________ enzymes and are called _______________
The first cells that formed on Earth were probably ___________ prokaryotes.
anaerobic- no oxygen
The first autotrophic cells probably used ____________ to make food.
_____________ produces energy through the oxidation of inorganic substances, such as sulfur.
Most modern autotrophic cells, such as _____________ use photosynthesis to make food.
An important byproduct of photosynthesis is __________.
Once oxygen began to ____________ on Earth, cells would need to bind oxygen to other compounds in order to prevent damage to cells.
This binding function may have been a first step toward _______ respiration in cells.
Eukaryotic cells may have evolved from large ______________ cells that ____________smaller prokaryotic cells. This is known as the theory of _________________.
The engulfed prokaryotic cells may have become the _______ of ___________ such as _____________ and chloroplasts.
4600- formation of earth
3500- first prokaryotes
3000- first photosynthesis
2000- first eukaryotic cell
1000 multicellular algae
540- first invertebrates-Cambrian
500- jawless fish ordovian
430- jawed fish-Silurian
430- fist land plants
400 first amphibians- devonian
350- plants seed- carboniferas
300- gymnosperms dominant- permian
245- fist dinosaurs- Triassic
200- first birds-jurassic
140- angiosperms are dominant- cretaceous
65- first placental mammals- tertiary
The idea that life may have started with self replacing molecules of RNA is based on the observation that RNA can
take on a great variety of shapes and acts as an employee
The first organisms on Earth was most likely
heterotrophic anaerobic and prokaryoti
Look at last packet
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