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Terms in this set (43)
process of releasing excess fluid and metabolic wastes
act of passing urine
what causes the ammonia odor in urine
why may there be color variations in urine?
because it is hydration dependent the darker the urine the more dehydrated
Explain the micturition process/ reflex
What muscle assists in the process of micturition?
Why is there a variation in urine color?
Mainly due to hydration ... the lighter the color the more hydrated the darker the color the less hydrated
What are the 5 methods of urine sampling
Suprapubic Aspiration (infants)
What are the methods of urine analysis
Biochemical / Dipstick
What is a macroscopic urinalysis involving?
Visual (i.e. color)
What does a microscopic urinalysis look for?
Crystals (kidney stones)
Cells (WBC< RBC, Bacteria)
What does a biochemical/ dipstick urinalysis look for?
What are the 4 potential problems in urinary elimination issues ?
What are the causes of motility issues in urine elimination
-Blood transfusion injury reaction
-Injury to muscles
-Recent major surgery
-Severe hypotension lasting longer than 30 min
What is the impact of motility issues in urine elimination
stasis of filtrate (bacteria growth)
Cast formation due to low flow rate
What is the name of a RBC cast formation pathology?
What is the name of a WBC cast formation pathology?
What is the name of epithelial cast formation pathology?
Acute tubular necrosis
What are the impacts of neuromuscular function in relation to urine elimination
Draw a nephron
What are the impacts of perfusion problems in relation to urine elimination
What is the effect of excessive perfusion in urine elimination
increased workload creates stress on the organ system
What is the effect of inadequate perfusion in urine elimination
can cause ischemia / infarction
What are the potential causes of inadequate perfusion of the urinary system
- constriction of arterioles
- low vascular volume (hypovolemia)
What is patency
the condition of being open, expanded, or unobstructed.
What is the impact of patency issues in urinary elimination?
ischemia / necrosis
What are the potential causes of obstruction within the urinary system
- scar tissue
What is the pathophysiology of obstructive kidney disease?
- urinary obstruction which results in dilation and stasis
- Decreased GFR
- can't efficiently eliminate sodium, urea and water
- leads to ischemia, atrophy
- kidney failure
abnormal condition of water in the kidney results from kinking of ureter due to persistent stone in ureter
what are the manifestations of changes in urinary elimination
change in urine amount
change in composition of urine
- one sided (costovertebral pain)
- dull persistent to intermittent and sharp
What is proteinuria
presence of protein in urine
What is glucosuria
glucose in the urine
what is hematuria
presence of blood in the urine
what is pyuria?
pus/WBCs in the urine
also includes leukocyte esterase
What is bacteruria?
bacteria in the urine
also includes presence of nitrites
What is the diagnostic criteria of altered elimination?
- IVP (intravenous pyelogram)
- Renal angiogram
- Renal ultrasound
What does an IVP look involve? and what does it stand for
What does a VCUG stand for? What does it involve/look for?
- Contrast via catheter
- Looks at reflux and structural aspects of bladder and urethra DURING URINE ELIMINATION
What does a renal angiogram involve? What is it looking for?
- Contrast used in renal artery via aorta
- Looks for stenosis/ obstructions
What does a renal ultrasound involve? what is it looking for?
- Non-invasive via sound waves
- Looks at size of kidneys
- Looks for cysts, hydroureter, cysts, obstructions and potential fluid collection
What is the treatment for Altered elimination of urine?
Control fluid balance
- Supplemental fluids to treat fluid deficit
- diuretics for fluid excess
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