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circular motion
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Gravity
Terms in this set (67)
What term describes a change in the speed of an object in circular motion?
tangential acceleration
Which of the following can be a centripetal force?
all of the above
The centripetal force on an object in circular motion is
in the same direction as the centripetal acceleration.
A child rides a bicycle in a circular path with a radius of 2.0 m. The tangential speed of the bicycle is 2.0 m/s. The combined mass of the bicycle and the child is 43 kg.What kind of force provides the centripetal force on the bicycle?
friction
A 35 kg child moves with uniform circular motion while riding a horse on a carousel. The horse is 3.2 m from the carousel's axis of rotation and has a tangential speed of 2.6 m/s
2.1 m/s2
What is the term for the net force directed toward the center of an object's circular path?
centripetal force
When an object is moving with uniform circular motion, the object's tangential speed
is constant.
What feature of an automobile causes it to have acceleration?
All of the above.
A child rides a bicycle in a circular path with a radius of 2.0 m. The tangential speed of the bicycle is 2.0 m/s. The combined mass of the bicycle and the child is 43 kg.What is the magnitude of the bicycle's centripetal acceleration?
2.0 m/s2
A ball is whirled on a string, then the string breaks. What causes the ball to move off in a straight line?
inertia
Which situation shows centripetal acceleration?
Both a and b.
A child rides a bicycle in a circular path with a radius of 2.0 m. The tangential speed of the bicycle is 2.0 m/s. The combined mass of the bicycle and the child is 43 kg.What is the magnitude of the centripetal force on the bicycle?
86 N
Two students standing apart in a classroom have a gravitational force of attraction between them of 3.20 x 10-8 N. If one student has a mass of 50.0 kg and the other has a mass of 60.0 kg, what is the distance between the students?
2.50 m
Which of the following equations expresses Newton's law of universal gravitation?
the answer is D.
A planet has a mass of about 6.4 x 1023 kg, and its moon has a mass of about 9.6 x 1015 kg. If the magnitude of the gravitational force between the two bodies is 4.6 x 1015 N, how far apart are the planet and its moon?
9.4 X 106
Which planets have the largest accelerations of gravity?
Jupiter, Neptune, Saturn
Why does an astronaut weigh less on the moon than on Earth?
The gravitational field strength is less on the moon's surface than on Earth's surface.
A planet has a mass of 5.68 x 1026 kg and a radius of 6.03 x 107 m. What is the weight of a 65.0 kg person on the surface of this planet?
678 N
If you lift an apple from the ground to some point above the ground, the gravitational potential energy in the system increases. This potential energy is stored in
the gravitational field between Earth and the apple.
Two small masses that are 10.0 cm apart attract each other with a force of 10.0 N. When they are 5.0 cm apart, these masses will attract each other with what force?(G = 6.673 ´ 10 N·m/kg)
40.0 N
Tides are caused by
differences in the gravitational force of the moon at different points on Earth.
An object's tendency to resist acceleration is measured by the object's
inertial mass.
Two students standing apart in a classroom have a gravitational force of attraction between them of 3.20 x 10-8 N. If one student has a mass of 50.0 kg and the other has a mass of 60.0 kg, what is the distance between the students?
2.50 m
Which of the following equations expresses Newton's law of universal gravitation?
fg= m1m2/r2
A planet has a mass of about 6.4 x 1023 kg, and its moon has a mass of about 9.6 x 1015 kg. If the magnitude of the gravitational force between the two bodies is 4.6 x 1015 N, how far apart are the planet and its moon?
9.4 X 106
Which planets have the largest accelerations of gravity?
Jupiter, Neptune, Saturn
Why does an astronaut weigh less on the moon than on Earth?
The gravitational field strength is less on the moon's surface than on Earth's surface.
A planet has a mass of 5.68 x 1026 kg and a radius of 6.03 x 107 m. What is the weight of a 65.0 kg person on the surface of this planet?
678 N
If you lift an apple from the ground to some point above the ground, the gravitational potential energy in the system increases. This potential energy is stored in
the gravitational field between Earth and the apple.
Two small masses that are 10.0 cm apart attract each other with a force of 10.0 N. When they are 5.0 cm apart, these masses will attract each other with what force?
(G = 6.673 ´ 10 N·m/kg)
40.0 N
Tides are caused by
differences in the gravitational force of the moon at different points on Earth.
An object's tendency to resist acceleration is measured by the object's
inertial mass.
The gravitational force between two masses is 36 N. What is the gravitational force if the distance between them is tripled? (G = 6.673 ´ 10 N·m/kg)
4.0 N
What apparatus was used by Cavendish to discover the universal gravitation constant (G)?
A rigid rod suspended by a wire which was 6-feet long to which two small metal spheres were attached to the ends.
Which of the following is a correct interpretation of the expression ?
All of the above are correct interpretations.
What force causes riders to feel heavy and weightless on a roller coaster?
the normal force
When calculating the gravitational force between two extended bodies, you should measure the distance
from the center of each body.
Gravitational force depends on __________ and __________.
mass, distance
What is a force that does not involve physical contact between two objects?
field force
A moon orbiting a planet in the solar system has an orbital period of 5.0 x 104 s, and the distance between the center of the moon and the planet is 2.0 x 108 m. What planet is it?
Jupiter (mass = 1.90 x 1027 kg)
Newton's law of universal gravitation
can be used to derive Kepler's third law of planetary motion.
How would the speed of Earth's orbit around the sun change if Earth's distance from the sun increased by 4 times?
It would decrease by a factor of 2.
Earth has a mass of 5.97 x 1024 kg, and a mean radius of 6.38 x 106 m. What is the orbital speed of a satellite 6.16 x 108 m above the surface of the earth? Round the answer off to the nearest whole number. (G = 6.67 x 10-11 N·m2/kg2)
800m/s
If a planet has twice the mass of Earth, its radius would have to be larger by a factor of 2 for the gravitational field strength at the planet's surface to be the same as on Earth's surface.
f
In the figure above, according to Kepler's laws of planetary motion,
if Dt = Dt, then A = A.
Earth has a mass of 5.97 x 1024kg, and a mean radius of 6.38 x 106m. What would be the orbital speed and period of a satellite in orbit 1.44 x 108 m above Earth?
T = 5.78 x 105 s
The average distance between the center of the Earth and the center of its moon is 3.84 x 108 m. The mass of the earth is 5.97x1024kg. What is the orbital speed and period of Earth's moon?
T = 2.37 x 106 s = 27.4 days
The equation for the speed of an object in circular orbit is . What does m represent in this equation?
the mass of the central object
Which of the following planets has the longest orbital period?
Neptune
If a satellite orbiting the Earth has a period of 125 min, then it must be 1.90 x 106 m above the Earth's surface. Note: The mass of earth is 5.97 x 1024 kg, and the mean radius of earth is 6.38 x106 m.
t
Io, one of Jupiter's moons, is about the size of Earth's moon. Io has a radius of about 1.85 x 106 m, and the mean distance between Io and Jupiter is 4.22 x 108 m. Jupiter has a mean radius of 7.15 x 107m, and a mass of 1.90 x 1027kg. If Io's orbit is circular, what is its orbital speed?
1.60 x 104 m/s
Only the mass of the planet and radius of the orbit are needed to calculate the orbital speed of a satellite.
t
When an astronaut in orbit experiences apparent weightlessness,
the net gravitational force on the astronaut is not balanced by a normal force.
The angle between the string of a pendulum at its equilibrium position and at its maximum displacement is the pendulum's
amplitude.
The motion of a metronome is an example of simple harmonic motion.
t
Which of the following features of a given pendulum changes when the pendulum is moved from Earth's surface to the moon?
the restoring force
A pendulum swings through a total of 28°. If the displacement is equal on each side of the equilibrium position, what is the amplitude of this vibration? (Disregard frictional forces acting on the pendulum.)
14°
The potential energy of a spring can be calculated using the formula PEsp= (1/2)kx2
t
By what factor should the length of a simple pendulum be changed in order to triple the period of vibration?
9
A mass attached to a string swings back and forth. The maximum displacement from equilibrium is the _________________.
amplitude.
For a mass hanging from a spring, the maximum displacement the spring is stretched or compressed from its equilibrium position is the system's
amplitude.
What direction is the perpendicular component of the force in simple harmonic motion?
Opposite to the displacement direction
In the equation for Hooke's Law, F = -kx, the term k represents the spring constant of a spring.
t
Calculated by -F = -kx
force of an elastic spring
Is equal to mass multiplied by gravitational field strength
weight
The law of gravitation is used to derive Kepler's _____ law of planetary motion.
3rd
____________ occurs due to a change in speed
tangential acceleration
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