AP Lang Vocab List 10: Latin Terms/End Notes & Footnotes
Terms in this set (15)
This abbreviation translates literally as "for the sake of an example"-but you can really just cut out the stuff in the middle and read it as "for example." It is used to give an example or set of examples to help clarify the preceding idea. In general, if you use this abbreviation, you should provide one or two short examples. More can be used, but only if they are simple and can be expressed in a single word or short phrase.
This abbreviation translates literally as "that is." Sometimes it might be more useful, however, to translate it as "what that means is" or "that is to say." This abbreviation is used to clarify the preceding idea by restating it more simply or in different terms. Strictly speaking, what follows it in parentheses should be equivalent to what comes before--you should be able to switch them without changing the meaning of the sentence. If this involves making a list, you should include all of the elements that make up that list. It might be useful to think of it as representing an equal sign (=). This will help you remember that it stands for a strict equivalence.
This abbreviation literally translates as "note well," although in practice you can read it as "pay attention." It is used in endnotes or footnotes to call the reader's attention to a particularly important piece of information--such as a key assumption of or exception to an argument--that is nevertheless not crucial enough to be included in the main body of the paper.
This abbreviation means "compare." It is primarily used in endnotes or footnotes to point the reader to works that offer an argument which contradicts or is otherwise different from the author's argument. Therefore, it might be more useful to read it as "but compare this to." It is generally preceded by citations of works that agree with the author's argument and then followed by one or two examples of works that disagree with or somehow differ from the argument.
Although it is not an abbreviation, it is one of the more frequently used Latin terms. It means "thus" or "so" and is used in quotations to indicate that any strange aspects of a piece of text, such as errors in of grammar, spelling, or word choice, are part of the original text and not a typo. Therefore, it could be more appropriately translated as "yes, that's actually what it says." Depending on the style you're using, it is italicized and placed in brackets after the word or phrase it identifies (as in APA and Chicago), or it is simply placed in parentheses after the entire quote (as in MLA).
This term, which translates as "around" or "approximately," usually appears with dates. It indicates that a number or value is approximate, not exact.
This Latin abbreviation translates as "and other people." It is used only for people. You will generally see et al. used in bibliographical entries for books, articles, or other publications that have several authors (usually four or more) in order to save space. In such cases, the name of the first author will be given in full and then followed by this abbreviation.
This abbreviation means "in the same place." It is used in endnotes or footnotes when you cite the same source and page number(s) two or more times. If you cite the same source but a different page number, you can use it followed by a comma and the page number(s).
Although it is becoming less common, you may encounter this abbreviation used in a way similar to ibid. This abbreviation means "the same person." It is used in place of ibid. when the same author is cited but not the same page number.
This abbreviation is an old form used in bibliographic citations similar to ibid. and id. This abbreviation translates as "in the place cited," Generally, it is used to refer to the same work and page number(s) as the previous citation. In all modern style manuals, ibid. is preferred to this abbreviation.
This abbreviation is an old form used in bibliographic citations similar to ibid. and id. The abbreviation translates as "in the work cited." Generally, it refers only to the same work and may or may not be followed by page numbers. In all modern style manuals, ibid. is preferred to this term.
The abbreviation translates as "below."It used to indicate that information will be more fully explained or cited elsewhere. If the information will appear in a later note (where a more complete citation or explanation is perhaps more appropriate), this abbreviation is used. In general, you can replace this abbreviation with "see below" without any change in meaning.
This abbreviation translates as "above." It is used to indicate that information will be more fully explained or cited elsewhere. If the information has already appeared in an earlier note, this abbreviation is used. In general, you can replace this abbreviation with "see above" without any change in meaning.
This abbreviation translates literally as "it is permitted to see," but a more useful translation is "namely" or "that is to say." It is used to clarify something by elaborating on it, giving a detailed description of it, or providing a complete list. In this sense, it is similar to i.e., although it tends to emphasize the precision and exactness of what follows and is thus a stronger version of i.e. It is generally acceptable to use i.e. instead of it.
This abbreviation translates literally as "it is permitted to know," but a more useful translation is "namely" or "as if to say." It is often used to provide a clarification, remove an ambiguity, or supply an omitted word. Like viz., it is a more specific version of i.e. and stresses the clarity of what follows. As with viz., it is generally acceptable to use i.e. rather than it
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