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Geol test 2
Terms in this set (85)
Know the three main domains of Essential Climate Variables.
Atmospheric, oceanic, terrestrial
Know whether in situ or remote sensing measurements are obtained by direct contact with the sample
Know the world's first artificial satellite, Sputnik 1 was launched by the Soviet Union on October 4 in the year _______________.
Know whether a Geostationary or Polar orbit has a closer path through space to the Earth.
Know whether a Geostationary or Polarorbit is an ideal orbit for telecommunications.
Know whether the Polar-orbiting satellites can pass over the North and South Poles several times a minute/day/year/decade.
Know whether the Geostationary or Polar orbit or both types of satellite or bits are necessary for providing a complete global weather monitoring system.
Know whether it is true or false that orbiting satellites can measure height of the ocean surface sea level.
Know the global-scale ocean observation network composed of small, drifting and diving robotic probes used to obtain ocean measurements located across the world are called __________________ Floats.
Know that there are more than ___________________pieces of debris, or "space junk," tracked as they orbit the Earth.
Of all the space debris, the greatest amount comes from _____.
Fuel, batteries, paint plakes
Know whether it is true or false that there is a need for monitoring climate.
Know the Cooperative weather Observer Program is
uses citizen observational data to construct a record of trends for temperature and precipitation
National weather service
Spatial coverage of COOP Network sites versus those that are included in the U.S. Historical Climatology Network (USHCN).
Denser coverage in larger population centers.
uses citizen observational data to construct a record of trends for temperature and precipitation
Know that the__________ is the direct contact for collecting information from the Cooperative weather Observer Program.
National Weather Service
The ____ a U.S. agency that through the Clean Air Act, monitors and regulates carbon dioxide and other harmful pollutants (among other duties
Environmental Protection Agency
Know whether information from Automated Surface Observing System(ASOS) - an automated, electronic system or from COOPsmanual observations is considered cleaner, more accurate.
Know a person who observes Earth's climate system,provides decision support with future climate conditions, serves as a salesperson of climate data, understands instruments used and can recognize issues in data, and assists with understanding of data is called a __________.
______is the physical place where the collected climate records are stored.
National Climatic Data Center (NCDC)
Know what is an archive and the top four used to determine much of the history of the Earth.
Climate scientists use a wide range of techniques to extract and reconstruct Earth's climatic history.
Much of this history is recorded in 4 archives: 1. Sediments 2. Corals 3. Trees 4. Ice
Know whether proxies can provide direct or indirect evidence of past change.
Know that information about the climate of the past can be learned through the location of ______________________, dirt and rock piles pushed along by the glacier as it moves.
Know that information about the climate of the past can be found in _______________, windblown silt deposits.
Know that cave calcite deposits such as stalagmites and flowstones that preserve information about the climate at the time of formation are referred to as _________________________.
Know that __________________ is the archive that can provide information about sea surface temperatures, salinity, nutrients, and ocean circulation patterns in proxies such as bands, geochemical isotopes, trace elements.
Know the oldest tree in the world is a bristlecone pine which is ___________years-old in the White Mountains, CA.
Know which does not harm the tree, a tree cross section (cookie) or tree coring.
Know whether the inner or outer tree rings are the youngest.
_______ is the name for the study of a time sequence using tree rings.
Variations in ring thickness relate to growing conditions can be affected by both water availability and temperature.
Know whether thick rings or thin rings indicate a "good" growing season: longer/wetter.
Know whether ice core records provide a direct or indirect measurement of past air composition and greenhouse gases trapped in air bubbles.
Know several examples of human records/documents from the human historical period that can be used to infer climate variations.
Good and bad harvest records
Dates of spring blossom
Extraordinary rain/snow fall
Floods or droughts
Supernova's and meteor showers
Know what instrumental records are and that the longest-running global temperature record starts in _____________.
The _________was formed by the U.N. Environmental Programme (UNEP) to evaluate the state of climate science as the basis for policy action, and informing scientists, public policy-makers and, ultimately, the public.
Intergovernmental panel on climate change (IPCC)
___ are climate scientists who use observational climate data and create a new class of information by representing Earth's climate system virtually to experiment with different kinds of essential Climate Variable (ECV) observations and quantities and play an important role in helping to understand future climate.
Is it true or false that climate models can be used to study of the dynamics of the climate system to project future climate.
The ___________is the star at the center of the Solar System and is the most important source of energy for life on Earth.
Solar energy moves through space in the form of waves called ____.
Energy from the Sun arrives mainly in the visible part of the spectrum in shorter-wave-length or longer wave length.
Energy radiated back (re-emitted) from Earth's surface moves in the infrared part of the spectrum in shorter-wave-length or longer wave length.
Know whether sensible or latent heat is the heat that you can feel and possessed by an object which is evidenced by its temperature change.
Know whether sensible or latent heat is the heat required to convert a solid into a liquid or vapor, or a liquid into a vapor, without change of temperature.
Know the 3 factors that lead to differential heating of the Earth.
Unequal radiation on a sphere (beam spreading)
The tilt of the Earth
Solar radiation is more diffuse at the poles because the angle of incoming radiation causes ____________.
Know the albedo of the Earth is ____________________%.
Know that differential heating of the Earth results in circulation patterns in the __________and __________.
Atmosphere and oceans
The rotation of the Earth and the _______________Effect(an apparent deflection) causes moving air to produce other circulation cells.
The Coriolis Force causes the deflection of the path of an object tin the Northern Hemisphere to be 90° to the right or left?
Atmospheric circulation is the large-scale movement of air by which a rotating Earth breaks the single cell into _______________cells.
The wind belts and the jet streams girdling the planet are steered by three convection cells, with the largest one being the __________.
1.the Hadley cell
2.the Ferrel cell
3.the Polar cell
Know whether a high pressure cell or a low pressure cell is associated with rain in the Northern Hemisphere.
low pressure cell
The region where the northern and southern trade winds meet and also the wettest location on Earth is called the ____.
Intertropical convergence zone (ITCZ)
Know what the atmospheric circulation: 3-cell conceptual model can explain well, ex. Trade winds, circulation patterns in the upper troposphere, the ITCZ, desert distribution, land-sea contrasts, topography into account.
Can explain well is trade winds, ITCZ and desert distribution
Water has a high or low specific heat so it takes more energy to heat up than land does.
Know whether the same amount of solar energy heats the land or waterfaster.
Know with the pressure gradient, high pressure goes to low pressure or low pressure goes to high pressure.
high to low
When the Coriolis Force and the Pressure gradient force balance one another in the upper atmosphere where there is no friction, there is a ____________________________ wind.
Know the jet streams are the most prominent movement in the upper-level westerly geostrophic air flows and are located between the cells.
Know whether the jet streams are weaker or strongerduring the summer.
Know about the Jet Streams travel about ____________________________ mph.
Know whether Global Barometric Pressure patterns are always the same or varyover time.
Know the 6 principal Greenhouse gases that absorb longwave radiation and warm the atmosphere.
1.carbon dioxide (CO2)
4.nitrous oxide (N2O)
6.water vapor (H2O)
Know that the 6 principal GHG's combined make up <1% of the atmosphere, but their heat-trapping ability is strong.
Know the 5 human activities that add excess CO2 to the atmosphere. (BBCID)
1. Burning of fossil fuels (e.g., oil, natural gas, and coal)
2. Burning of solid waste for fuel (e.g., dung, peat, wood, etc., mostly in Asia and Africa)
3. Cement production (cement plants account for 5% of global emissions of CO2)
4. Industrial agricultural (a large CO2source and a source of other greenhouse gases such as methane)
5. Deforestation (e.g., logging and clearing land for farming and development)
Methane levels have more than doubled over the last 150 years because of human activities such as _________and ______________.
Fossil fuel use
Over last 800,000 yrs., Methane (CH4) concentrations have varied between _____ppb and the current concentrations are more than ______ppb.
Methane (CH4) is amore potent greenhouse gas about __________% more powerful than CO2.
Natural sources create ______________% of methane emissions.
_________________________are largest source of Methane.
Know the 3 locations where Methane (CH4) is formed in low oxygen environments.
Microbial activity in wetlands
Boreal (circum-arctic) regions
The two greatest human-related sources to create the majority of methane emissions are ____ and _____ which make up about ______% of human methane emissions.
Fossil fuel production
Know 8 evidences for Rapid Climate Change for free response question.
(2) Global temperature rise
(3) Warming oceans
(4) Shrinking ice sheets
(5) Declining Arctic sea ice
(6) Glacial retreat
(7) Snow decreasing
(8) Extreme Events (or other)
Know the Earth's surface temperature has increased by _______________________________ degrees (C and F) since 1880 over the record of direct temperature measurements (1860-2000).
0.8C or 1.4 F
Each of the last 3 decades has been successively warmer at the Earth's surface than any preceding decade since 1850.
Oceans warming faster or slower than previously thought
Ice sheets are gaining or losing mass.
If the Greenland Ice Sheet melted, sea level would rise about ___________________________. (meters and feet)
6 meters, 20 feet
If the Antarctic Ice Sheet melted, sea level would rise by about ___________________________.
60 meters, 200 feet
Mountain glaciers average retreat was about ______________.
There is a gradual or rapid decrease of snow cover in the N.H.
Satellite measurements show almost a _____________% decrease in the extentof September sea ice cover in the Arctic Ocean since the early 1970's and an increase or decreasein ice volume.
Global average sea level rose about ______________________.
6.7 in or ½ foot
Global average sea level is rising because of these two factors:
Land ice has melted
Seawater has warmed and expanded
Changes in extreme weather and climate events are increasing or decreasing.
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