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Quiz 5 Review (ap2)
Terms in this set (99)
Who discovered blood types?
Karl Landstainer (1900)
Karl Landstainer won
The Nobel Prize in 1930
Blood types are based on
Interactions between antigens and antibodies
What are antigens?
Unique molecules on cell surface used to distinguish self from foreign
What do foreign antigens generate?
What are antibodies secreted by?
Why are antibodies secreted by plasma?
It is part of immune response to foreign matter
Antibodies & antigens
What is agglutination?
Antibodies binding to antigens
Antibodies binding to antigens causes
What is the ABO Blood group?
Blood types A, B, AB, and O
The presence or absence of antigens A & B is
Blood type O
Antibodies are made
Against intestinal flora but cross-react with RBCs
At what time do antibodies began to appear?
2-8 months after birth
At what time do antibodies reach their peak?
8-10 yrs old (decline for rest of life)
The body make antibodies (Abs) against what?
Against antigens (Ags) they do not have
Blood type A has _____ antigens and _____ antibodies
A antigens, B antibodies
Blood type B has _____ antigens and _____ antibodies
B antigens, A antibodies
Blood type AB has _____ antigens and _____ antibodies
Both antigens, no antibodies
Blood type O has _____ antigens and _____ antibodies
Neither antigens, makes A & B antibodies
The most common blood type is
Blood type O is
The universal donor
The rarest blood type is
Blood type AB is
The universal recipient
In transfusions it is imperative that
Recipients antibodies do not agglutinate the donor RBCs
In transfusion reaction
Agglutinated RBCs block blood vessels, hemolyze and release Hb
Renal failure is caused by
The free Hb blocking kidney tubules
After a transfusion, is blood type changed?
How can blood type be determined?
By adding 1 drop of blood in 2 different pools containing Antibodies against A and B
Which blood type agglutinates only in pool A
Which blood type agglutinates only in pool B
Which blood type agglutinates in pool A & B
Which blood type does not agglutinates in either pool?
What does the universal donor lack?
When transfusing the universal donor, the donor's plasma
May have antibodies against recipient's RBCs, may give packed cells
Packed cells have
What does the universal recipient lacks?
The universal recipient does not have
Antibodies A or B
Where were Rh (D) agglutinogens discovered?
In rhesus monkey in 1940
Rh+ blood type has
D agglutinogens on RBCs
Rh frequencies vary among
Anti-D Abs are
Not normally present
Where are anti-D antibodies form?
Only in Rh- individuals exposed to Rh+ blood
Example of anti-D antibodies
Rh- woman with an Rh+ fetus or transfusion of Rh+ blood
Clot reaction occurs in
platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF)
Platelets and endothelial cells
No problems with first transfusion or pregnancy becomes a problem if
Mother has formed antibodies and is pregnant with 2nd Rh+ child
Anti-D antibodies can cross placenta
Prevention for Anti-D antibodies
RhoGAM is given to pregnant Rh- women which binds to
Fetal Ags in her blood so she will not form anti-D antibodies (28-32 weeks, birth)
Hemolyzed RBCs release
The release of Hb in blood is converted to
Bilirubin that goes to the brain (kernicterus)
Kernicterus can cause
Death or brain damage
Treatment for Anti-D antibodies
UV light or exchange transfusion in severe cases (replacing Rh+with Rh- until mother's Abs disappear)
There are __________ WBCs/µL
5,000 to 10,000
Leukocytes (WBCs) is the protection
Granulocytes come from
Types of granulocytes are
Neutrophils, eosinophils, basophils
Reddish granules, called polymorphonuclears (PMN)
Increase in bacterial infections
Large orange granules
Increase in allergies, parasitic infections
Dark violet granules
Types of agranulocytes
Lymphocytes make up what percentage of WBCs?
Monocytes make up what percentage of WBCs?
Have subclasses but all look alike (B, T)
Neutrophils make up what percentage of WBCs?
Eosinophils make up what percentage of WBCs?
Basophils make up what percentage of WBCs?
Largest WBC (kidney-shaped nucleus)
What does a complete blood count provide?
A very informative profile of data (hematocrit, hemoglobin concentration, abnormal size and structure of RBCs and WBCs)
What are the functions of the nose?
Warms, cleans & humidifies air, detects odors
In the nose, what does the resonating chamber do?
Anatomy of the nose
Anterior & posterior nares
The anterior nares are commonly referred to as
The posterior nares are
The nose has a
Bony and cartilaginous supports
The superior half of the nose is made up of
The nasal bones medially and maxillae laterally
The inferior half of the nose are made up of
The lateral and alar cartilages (greater and lesser)
The nasal cavity is covered from
The nostrils to choanae
The nasal cavity includes
Vestibule, nasal septum, superior, middle and inferior nasal conchae & meatus
Chamber just inside of nostrils is
Divides cavity into right and left chambers called nasal fossae
warm, cleanse & humidify air
Superior, middle and inferior nasal conchae
Space beneath each concha is called
What are the conical organs?
apex, costal surface, mediastinal surface, hilum, cardiac impression
Apex, costal surface
Receives primary bronchus, blood and lymphatic vessels, nerves
Cardiac impression is
The left lobe
The right side of the lungs has
3 lobes (superior, middle, inferior)
The left side of the lungs has
2 lobes (superior and inferior)
The bronchial tree has
Air tubes that start in primary bronchi
Bronchial tree ends in
~ 65,000 terminal bronchioles
Bronchial tree divisions
primary, secondary, tertiary,
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