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AP Language Chapter 3 Vocab
Terms in this set (38)
Latin for "to the man," this fallacy refers to the specific diversionary tactic of switching the argument from the issue at hand to the character of the other speaker.
ad populum (bandwagon appeal)
this fallacy occurs when evidence boils down to "everybody's doing it, so it must be a good thing to do."
appeal to false authority
this fallacy occurs when someone who has no expertise to speak on an issue is cited as an authority.
a process of reasoned inquiry; a persuasive discourse resulting in a coherent and considered movement from a claim to a conclusion.
shared by the speaker and the audience and expressed by the warrant in the Toulmin model
in the Toulmin model, it consists of further assurances or data without which the assumption lacks authority
begging the question
a fallacy in which a claim is based on evidence or support that is in doubt.
a fallacy in which the writer repeats the claim as a way to provide evidence.
also called an assertion or proposition, it states the argument's main idea or position. It differs from a topic or subject in that it has to be arguable.
claim of fact
claim that asserts that something is true or not true.
claim of policy
claim that proposes a change.
claim of value
claim that argues that something is good or bad, right or wrong.
five-part argument structure used by classical rhetoricians. The five parts are introduction, narration, confirmation, refutation, and conclusion.
introduces the reader to the subject under discussion.
provides factual information and background material on the subject at hand or establishes why the subject is a problem that needs addressing.
usually the major part of the text, it includes the proof needed to make the writer's case.
addresses the counterargument and acts as a bridge between the writer's proof and conclusion.
brings the essay to a satisfying close.
a statement of the main idea of the argument that also previews the major points a writer intends to make.
a logical process whereby one reaches a conclusion by starting with a general principle or universal truth (major premise) and applying it to a specific case (minor premise).
either/or fallacy (false dilemma)
a fallacy in which the speaker presents two extreme options as the only possible choices.
a fallacy occurs when an analogy compares two things that are not comparable.
evidence based on something the writer knows, whether it's from personal experience, observations, or general knowledge of events.
a fallacy in which a faulty conclusion is reached because of inadequate evidence.
"to lead into"; a logical process whereby the writer reasons from particulars to universals, using specific cases in order to draw a conclusion, which is also called a generalization.
potential vulnerabilities or weaknesses in an argument. They often arise from a failure to make a logical connection between the claim and the evidence used to support it.
a thesis that does not list all the points the writer intends to cover in an essay.
post hoc ergo propter hoc
"after which therefore because of which," meaning it is incorrect to always claim that something is a cause just because it happened earlier. Correlation does not imply causation.
in the Toumlin model, it uses words like usually, probably, maybe, in most cases, and most likely to temper the claim, making it less absolute.
includes things that can be measured, cited, counted, or otherwise represented in numbers.
in the Toumlin model, it gives voice to possible objections.
in the Toumlin model, it explains the terms and conditions necessitated by the qualifier.
developed by psychiatrist Carl Rogers, these are based on the assumption that having a full understanding of an opposing position is essential to responding to it persuasively and refuting it in a way that is accommodating rather than alienating.
evidence that is accessed through research, reading, and investigation.
a fallacy that occurs when a speaker chooses a deliberately poor or oversimplified example in order to ridicule and refute an idea.
a logical structure that uses the major premise and minor premise to reach a necessary conclusion.
an approach to analyzing and constructing arguments created by British philosopher Stephen Toulmin. "Because (evidence as support), therefore (claim), since (warrant or assumption), on account of (backing), unless (reservation).
in the Toulmin model, it expresses the assumption necessarily shared by the speaker and the audience.
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