34 terms

Myers Exploring Psychology Chapter 8

7th edition
the persistence of learning over time through the storage and retrieval of information
Flashbulb memory
a clear memory of an emotionally significant moment or event
the processing of information into the memory system eg by extracting meaning
the retention of encoded information over time
the process of getting information out of memory storage
Sensory information
the immediate, very brief recording of sensory information in the memory system.
Short-term memory
activated memory that holds a few items briefly before the information is stored or forgotten; Working memory is a similar concept
Long-term memory
the relatively permanent and limitless storehouse of the memory system
Automatic processing
unconscious encoding of incidental information, such as space, time, and frequency, and of well-learned information, such as word meanings
Effortful processing
encoding that requires attention and conscious effort
the conscious repetition of information, either to maintain it in consciousness or to encode it for storage
Spacing effect
the tendency for distributed study or practice to yield better long-term retention than is achieved through massed study or practice.
Serial position effect
our tendency to recall best the last and first items in a list
mental pictures; a powerful aid to effortful processing, especially when combined with semantic encoding
memory aids, especially those techniques that use vivid imagery and organizational devices
organizing items into familiar, manageable units; often occurs automatically
Iconic memory
a momentary sensory memory of visual stimuli; a photographic or picture-image memory lasting no more than a few tenths of a second
Echoic memory
a momentary sensory memory of auditory stimuli; if attention is elsewhere, sounds and words can still be recalled within 3 or 4 seconds
Long-term potentiation
an increase in a synapse's firing potential after brief, rapid stimulation. Believed to be a neural basis for learning and memory
loss of memory
Implicit memory
retention independent of conscious recollection; also called procedural memory
Explicit memory
memory of facts and experiences that one can consciously know and "declare"; also called declarative memory
a neural center located in the limbic system that helps process explicit memories for storage
A measure of memory in which the person must retrieve information learned earlier, as on a fill-in-the-blank test.
a measure of memory in which the person need only identify items previously learned, as on a multiple-choice test
a memory measure that assesses the amount of time saved when learning material for a second time
the activation, often unconsciously, of particular associations in memory
Deja vu
that eerie sense that "I've experienced this before." Cues from the current situation may subconsciously trigger retrieval of an earlier experience.
Mood-congruent memory
the tendency to recall experiences that are consistent with one's current good or bad mood
Proactive interference
the disruptive effect of prior learning on the recall of new information
Retroactive interference
the disruptive effect of new learning on the recall of old information
in psychoanalytic theory, the basic defense mechanism that banishes from consciousness anxiety-arousing thoughts, feelings, and memories
Misinformation effect
incorporating misleading information into one's memory of an event
Source amnesia
attributing to the wrong source an event we have experienced, heard about, read about, or imagined. (Also called source misattribution.) Source amnesia, along with the misinformation effect, is at the heart of many false memories.