the immediate, very brief recording of sensory information in the memory system.
activated memory that holds a few items briefly before the information is stored or forgotten; Working memory is a similar concept
unconscious encoding of incidental information, such as space, time, and frequency, and of well-learned information, such as word meanings
the conscious repetition of information, either to maintain it in consciousness or to encode it for storage
the tendency for distributed study or practice to yield better long-term retention than is achieved through massed study or practice.
mental pictures; a powerful aid to effortful processing, especially when combined with semantic encoding
memory aids, especially those techniques that use vivid imagery and organizational devices
a momentary sensory memory of visual stimuli; a photographic or picture-image memory lasting no more than a few tenths of a second
a momentary sensory memory of auditory stimuli; if attention is elsewhere, sounds and words can still be recalled within 3 or 4 seconds
an increase in a synapse's firing potential after brief, rapid stimulation. Believed to be a neural basis for learning and memory
memory of facts and experiences that one can consciously know and "declare"; also called declarative memory
a neural center located in the limbic system that helps process explicit memories for storage
A measure of memory in which the person must retrieve information learned earlier, as on a fill-in-the-blank test.
a measure of memory in which the person need only identify items previously learned, as on a multiple-choice test
a memory measure that assesses the amount of time saved when learning material for a second time
that eerie sense that "I've experienced this before." Cues from the current situation may subconsciously trigger retrieval of an earlier experience.
the tendency to recall experiences that are consistent with one's current good or bad mood
in psychoanalytic theory, the basic defense mechanism that banishes from consciousness anxiety-arousing thoughts, feelings, and memories