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Honors Bio Chapters 3-4
Terms in this set (47)
Describe the type and quality of energy available in the open ocean at depths of 6000 meters and 100 meters.
At 6000 meters it´s chemosynthesis, and at 100 meters it´s photosynthesis
The algae at the beginning of the food chain in Figure 3-1 are
In Figure 3-4, would the snake obtain a greater percentage of the sun's energy if it ate a frog or if it ate a grasshopper? Explain your answer.
A grasshopper, because it it closer to the sun than the frog.
Compared to land, the open oceans are nutrient- rich or poor -environments.
In which way are plants in a sunny mountain meadow and sulfur bacteria in a deep-sea volcanic vent alike?
They both use photosynthesis to make their own food.
Corn planted in a field that has been previously planted with legumes and then plowed under is likely to be
more productive because bacteria living on the roots of legumes fix nitrogen in the soil
How many kilocalories (kcal) can the top carnivore in Figure 3-4 diagram I, store?
How might a large omnivore change the flow of energy in Diagram II?
Less energy would be available to each level above the producers
A bird stalks, kills, and then eats an insect. Based on its behavior, what pair of ecological terms describes the bird?
What goes in Box 5 of the food web in Figure 3-2?
Only 10 percent of the energy stored in an organism can be passed on to the next trophic level. Of the remaining energy, some is used for the organism's life processes, and the rest is
Eliminated as heat
Matter can recycle through the biosphere because
biological systems do not use up matter, they transform it
What is happening to water at D in Figure 3-3?
Water is seeping into the ground to become groundwater.
Carbon cycles through the biosphere in which processes?
Photosynthesis, burning of fossil fuels, and decomposition of plants & animals
Nitrogen fixation is carried out primarily by
Animals get the most of the nitrogen they need by
consuming plants or other animals that contain nitrogen
If a lake receives a large input of a limiting nutrient, what would happen first?
Algae begin to die and decomposers take over.
Why can't the producers in some ecosystems make an unlimited supply of organic material?
One or more nutrients are in short supply
Phosphorus is very important for living things because living organisms need phosphorus to
form DNA and RNA
What is a biotic factor that affects the size of a population in a specific ecosystem?
number and kinds of predators in the ecosystem
During a long period when there is no rainfall, a mountain lion may temporarily leave its usual hunting territory to drink from a farm pond. This behavior is due to
the change in an abiotic factor in its environment
Know examples of how biotic and abiotic factors interact.
biotic living, abiotic not living
Explain the roles of photosynthesis and respiration in the carbon cycle.
photosynthesis removes carbon dioxide from the atmosphere and respiration returns carbon dioxide to the atmosphere
What is a biological aspect of an organism's niche?
The way it gets its food
Several species of warblers can live in the same spruce tree ONLY because they
occupy different niches within the tree
No two species can occupy the same niche in the same habitat at the same time because
of the competitive exclusion principle
What would happen if the population of the bird species shown in the ecosystem in Figure 4-1 were to suddenly decrease?
The fish population would increase
A symbiotic relationship in which one organism is harmed and the other benefits is
How is parasitism different from commensalism?
One organism is harmed in parasitism and no organisms are harmed in commensalism.
Primary succession would most likely occur after
What is the difference between primary and secondary succession?
Primary succession starts with bare land and lichen and starts to build a community. Secondary succession is where the community is already there but has been destroyed
What occurs during the ecological succession of an ecosystem?
living organisms modify their environment a little at a time
Figure 4-2 shows succession in an ecosystem. What organisms are found in the climax community for this ecosystem?
trees and shrubs
Which aquatic ecosystem is likely to be the warmest?
depends on where the location is, and then it is the shallowest
What can you conclude about the ecosystem from the pyramid of numbers shown?
there are more first level consumers than producers
Estuaries are commercially important because
fish species that people buy and sell live in estuaries
What is a factor that makes estuaries unique?
hey have a lot of biomass, but not a large variety of species
The photic zone extends
to a depth of about 200 meters
What is true about the open ocean?
the open ocean begins at the low-tide mark and extends to the end of the continental shelf
Which color in the diagram above shows the Temperate Forest Biome?
Which type of graph would be BEST suited to showing the precipitation data from the table?
a bar graph
For a given set of data, the range is the difference between highest & lowest points. The average annual temperature range, in degrees C, for Lillehammer is approximately
How are the populations of the organisms in the graph above different when grown together?
when grown together, P. aurelia prospers, but P. caudatum dies out
A forest area is cleared for farms. A few years later, the farms are abandoned, letting weeds
and grasses overtake the land. If the area is not disrupted again by human activity, which
of the following is most likely to happen over time?
The grasses will be replaced by shrubs and trees similar to those that made up the original forest.
What are the bacteria and fungi that recycle nutrients in an ecosystem?
Generally, only about 10 percent of the energy at one trophic level is converted to biomass
at the next energy level. If there were producers, primary consumers, secondary consumer & tertiary consumers, how many kcal are available to secondary consumers?
5500 kcal (primary producer)
550 kcal (primary consumer)
55 kcal (secondary consumer
5.5 kcal (tertiary consumer)
Salt water is an abundant resource but unusable for irrigation and drinking. As demands on freshwater sources increase, the use of desalination processes to remove salt from ocean water is increasing. A concern of desalinating water is the large amounts of recovered salts that are returned to the ocean. Which of the following describes the most likely impact of desalination on the surrounding ocean environment?
Alteration in ocean salt levels would cause loss of species and unbalanced populations in marine food webs.
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