Sports Medicine BIG Review
Terms in this set (438)
Member of the sports medicine team
Responsible for first aid care of athletes in the absence of an athletic trainer.
Member of the sports medicine team
Should be well informed about their injury and listen to their body to prevent re-injury.
Member of the sports medicine team
Important especially with athletes who are minors
Member of the sports medicine team
Assists the athletic trainer in return to play decisions
Member of the sports medicine team
Responsible for all aspects of care of the injured athlete.
Facilitates communication between all members of the sports medicine team.
Lead/instruct individuals and groups in exercise activities.
Certified Strength and Conditioning Specialist
Prevent, evaluate, care and rehabilitate injuries.
Promotes healthy eating habits and recommends dietary modifications
Expert in the effect of exercise on the human body
Diagnose illness, prescribe and administer treatment for people with injury or disease
Uses touch to manipulate soft tissues of the body to restore function
Helps with conditions that limit activities of daily living.
Also has assistants and aides that help within this field.
Must have a Doctorate degree at an accredited school
Helps restore, maintain physical health by relieving pain and improving mobility.
Also has assistants and aides that help within this field.
Practices medicine under the supervision of physicians and surgeons
Diagnose and treat issues of the foot and lower leg
Study mental processes and behavior and assists in the mental aspect of sport participation
Athletes use their bodies to deter or punish their opponent.
Examples include football, rugby and hockey.
Contact with the opponent is part of the sport, but is not part of the actual intent of the sport and discouraged by the rules.
Examples include basketball, soccer, and wrestling
Players are physically separated from their opponent
Examples include Volleyball, Tennis, and Cross Country running
Assumption of Risk
Athletes recognize that there are some risks inherent in participating in sports and choose to take part anyway.
Touching someone without their permission
Doing something extra that a reasonable person would not have done
Failing to do something that a reasonable person would have done
Failure to Warn
Not informing a participant of potential risks and dangers
Medical information confidentiality law
Being informed of all procedures and potential risks/benefits of each
Legal responsibility to act
When an individual commits a negligent act while providing care
Failure to use ordinary or reasonable care.
Must prove four things: Duty of care, Breach of duty, Injury/damage, Proximate cause
Standard of Care
Level of care that is expected, based on someone with similar education and experience
Federal legislation ensuring equal opportunities to Americans with disabilities (American Disability Act)
Scope of Practice
The skills and responsibilities of your level of training.
What you can and cannot do as part of your career.
Gender equity law
Proper documentation format
Subjective, Objective, Assessment, Plan
Plan detailing how to deal with an emergency.
Includes location of equipment and individual responsibilities.
Specific for each sport and venue.
Closer to the head or higher than another structure
Closer to the feet or lower than another structure
More in front than another structure
More in back than another structure
Closer to the midline than another structure
Farther away from the midline than another structure
Further from the root of the limb (extremities only)
Closer to the root of the limb (extremities only)
Closer to the surface of the body than another structure
Closer to the core of the body than another structure
Towards the belly/front
Towards the back
Lying face down
Lying face up
Pertaining to one side of the body
Pertaining to both sides of the body
Standing with the palms facing forward
Divides the body into right and left portions
Divides the body into front and back portions.
Also called the Coronal Plane
Divides the body into upper and lower portions.
Also called the Horizontal Plane
Divides the body into EQUAL right and left halves.
Also called the Midsagittal Plane
The site at which bones meet to form a joint
A fluid-filled sac at a joint that prevents friction
Gristle-like padding that lies on or between bones
Tissue that connects bone to bone
Tissue that connects muscle to bone
Treatment by use of cold
Treatment by use of water
Treatment by use of heat
Method or apparatus used for healing an injury
Sense of the body's position in space
Range of Motion
Movement of a joint around a central point (how much motion occurs at a joint)
To bring back to the normal position
Distal aspect of limb forced away from the midline
Distal aspect of limb forced toward midline
To advise the use of
To advise against
The process of the body physiologically adapting to an unfamiliar environment (altitude or temperatures)
Work or exercise requiring oxygen.
(Endurance, long in duration yet low in intensity)
Work or exercise not requiring oxygen
(Sprints, short in duration and high in intensity)
An agent for producing insensibility to pain
State of being pinched off or smaller than normal
State of being enlarged
On the opposite side
The name of the disease or condition a person is believed to have
Prediction of the course and end of a disease or eventual outcome of an injury
To supply with nerves
Examination by touch
An agent causing the constriction or closing of blood vessels
An agent causing the dilation or opening of blood vessels
Minor wound in which the skin's surface is rubbed or scraped
Tearing or pulling away or a part of a structure
Inflammation of a bursa
A bruise to a bone or muscle, caused by an outside force resulting in tissue damage and internal bleeding.
Complete displacement of a bone from its normal position in a joint.
A break or crack in a bone
Swelling composed of blood.
Internal bleeding associated with a contusion.
A cut made surgically with a sharp knife
A jagged cut or tear in the skin
Pulling apart of a generally non-movable joint
Stretching or tearing of ligaments
Stretching or tearing of muscle or tendon
Incomplete or partial dislocation of a joint
Lack or loss of memory usually due to head injury, shock, fatigue or illness.
Wasting away of organ or tissue.
A decrease in muscle or tissue size, usually caused by disease, injury or loss of function.
Of sudden onset.
Of long duration or frequent recurrence
Crackling sound or feeling
Blue skin from lack of oxygen
Bleeding visible beneath the skin as a blue or purple patch.
Swelling due to abnormal accumulation of fluid in tissues or cavities
Swelling in a joint
The body's reaction to injury.
Signs and symptoms include redness, swelling, heat, pain and sometimes loss of function.
Looseness of a joint due to loose ligaments.
Pain at the sorest spot of an injury.
Pain that occurs away from the injury site.
Potentially fatal reaction of the body to injury.
Failure of the cardiovascular system to circulate enough blood to the body.
Mechanism of Injury
The circumstance in which an injury occurs.
Bending at a joint or decreasing the angle between two bones
Straightening a joint or increasing the angle between two bones
Excessive extension beyond anatomical position
Moving a body part toward the midline of the body
Moving a body part away from the midline of the body
Turning the palm or sole of the foot downward
Turning the palm or sole of the foot upward
Moving a part backward
Moving a part forward
Raising a part
Lowering a part
Turning on a single axis
Tri-planar, circular motion at the hip or shoulder
Rotation of the hip or shoulder away from the midline
Rotation of the hip or shoulder toward the midline
Side-bending left or right
Turning the sole of the foot inward
Turning the sole of the foot outward
Ankle movement bringing the foot toward the shin
Ankle movement pointing the foot downward
Movement of the wrist towards the radius or lateral side
Movement of the wrist towards the ulna or medial side
Movement of the thumb across the palm of the hand
Movement of the hip or shoulder away from the midline in the horizontal plane
Movement of the hip or shoulder toward the midline in the horizontal plane
Protects the skin, but decreases the efficiency of the tape.
First 20 minutes
Studies have shown that taping is superior to bracing for this long.
Used under tape to prevent friction, blisters and cuts.
Special cutters made for tape removal.
Ensures bonding of the tape to the skin.
Athletes may develop skin irritations or reactions to this with prolonged use.
Provides a firm base to attach other tape ends.
Usually applied first, taped directly to the skin.
Vertical "U" piece of tape to support either side of the ankle.
Generally applied medial to lateral.
Made of foam or felt, applied around ankle to prevent/treat swelling.
Used primarily with thumb, hip or shoulder
"U" shaped loops around the heel
Medial and lateral strips should both be applied.
Protects against hyperextension of a joint.
Protect against concussions and dental trauma
If improperly fitted, these can create mechanical disturbances that affect the body's total postural balance.
4 factors that determine proper fit of equipment
Size (of athlete and equipment)
Sport and Position
Strength (of athlete and equipment)
Age and physical development
Ways to decrease the possibility of litigation stemming from equipment
Buy from reputable manufacturers
Use great caution when customizing equipment
Use equipment only for the purpose for which it was designed.
Warn athletes that they can still get hurt even with the equipment.
Maintain all equipment properly.
Fit can be altered by temperature, hair length, deterioration of internal padding and loss of air.
Recommended in sports that have fast-moving projectiles.
Should not break, slip on sweat or detract from peripheral vision.
Prevents cauliflower ear
Footwear fitting guidelines
Try on both feet.
Simulate the conditions under which they will use them.
Fit at the end of the day.
Ensure cleats are properly positioned under the foot.
National Operating Committee on Standards for Athletic Equipment
The body's ability to deliver oxygen/nutrients to tissues over a sustained period of time.
The ability of a muscle to sustain repeated contractions.
Explosive burst of movement composed of strength and speed.
The body's ability to react to training loads by increasing its ability to cope with demands.
A greater than normal stress on the body is required for training adaption to take place.
Training should be relevant and appropriate to the individual's sport.
There is a gradual loss of training effects when the intensity and duration is reduced.
The process of varying a training program at regular time intervals to help an athlete achieve peak performance at a particular time.
High volume, low intensity workouts focused on proper technique
Low volume, high intensity workouts.
Active rest, allows for physiological and psychological break.
Pathway of blood through the heart
Vena Cava (superior and inferior)
Pulmonary Semilunar Valve
Aortic Semilunar Valve
Pathway of air into the lungs
Amount of air breathed in and out during normal breathing.
Amount of air breathed in and out during maximal inspiration and expiration.
Amount of blood the heart ejects with one contraction of the left ventricle.
Amount of blood the heart can eject in one minute.
The efficiency which someone can use oxygen while exercising.
How to accomplish Overload
Manipulate the rate/distance of interval
Increase number of repetitions
Decrease rest time between intervals
Change the type of activity during the rest periods
Increase the frequency of training per week
"Speed play" - alternating fast and slow running over natural terrain.
Series of exercise stations with brief rest intervals between each station.
Max Heart Rate
Slow Twitch Fiber
Contract slowly, but can continue for a long time.
Fast Twitch Fiber
Generates short bursts of strength or speed but they fatigue quickly.
Does not result in any movement of the joint.
Examples: wall sit, planking
Joint is moved through a full ROM against a fixed weight, speed is variable.
Examples: bench press, squats
Variable resistance with a fixed speed. Machine is required to perform these motions.
Muscle is lengthened while the weight is lowered.
Produces the greatest strength gains
Muscle shortens as weight is lifted.
Closed chain exercises
Distal segment is fixed.
Examples: squats, push-ups
Open chain exercises
Distal segments are freely moving.
Examples: bench press, throwing, knee extensions
Improves muscular power.
Utilizes the stretch reflex - the greater the stretch, the greater the load/power generated.
General guidelines of strength programs
Allow proper rest between exercises.
Balanced program to prevent injury and overuse.
Use a spotter.
Performing the exercise one time.
Grouping together a number of repetitions of a specific exercise.
The opposing force to a muscle contraction.
How to build strength and size
High resistance with low repetitions.
How to build muscle endurance
Low resistance with high repetitions.
How to build power
Holding a stretch for a period of time, generally 10-30 seconds.
Better used at the end of work-outs.
Using body momentum to bounce at the end range of a stretch.
Not generally recommended as it can cause injury.
Functional based exercises which use sport specific movements to increase flexibility.
Examples: high knees, butt kickers, inchworm
Proprioceptive Neuromuscular Facilitation
Uses the contract/relax or hold/relax techniques to increase flexibility.
Factors that affect nutrient needs
Purpose of Nutrition
Promotes a healthier mind and body
Aids in resistance to illness
Helps athletes sleep better
Speeds the healing process
Government recommendations on daily food intake
Sugars and starches that are converted to glucose and glycogen for energy.
Necessary for proper growth and development of muscles and bones.
Also known as lipids, these nutrients provide the greatest amount of energy (9 kcals/gram)
Come from organic sources and can be fat or water soluble
Come from inorganic sources, includes calcium, sodium and iron.
Most important nutrient. Loss of this can negatively effect every body system.
Replaces electrolytes lost during heavy sweating.
Potentially serious medical complication resulting from excess of sodium loss and overconsumption of water.
Main active ingredients include caffeine and sugar. Not recommended for athletes.
Purpose of a pre-game meal
Settles the stomach
Fuels the muscles
Pacifies the mind
Helps endurance athletes store the maximum amount of energy prior to an event.
This meal should be eaten within 15-20 minutes after a workout and should include carbohydrates, proteins and electrolytes.
Adult male = 3%
Adolescent male = 7%
Female = 12%
Body Mass Index
Uses a person's height and weight to determine body composition. Does not factor in muscle mass.
Underwater weighing, measures body density.
Bod Pod. Most accurate estimation of body composition.
Measure the thinkness of the fat layer on specific body sites.
Bioelectrical Impedance Analysis
"Body fat scale"
Near Infrared Reactance
Measures the thickness of the skin/fat at only one site.
Calories vs. Energy expenditure
3500 calories = 1 lb of body weight
Eat more than you burn off = gain weight
Burn off more than you eat = lose weight
Intense fear of gaining weight, distorted body image, self-starvation or over exercising.
Binging and purging, feeling out of control during the eating episode.
Signs that may indicate an eating disorder
(Know the complete list from your notes - this is just a few...)
Social isolation, ritualistic eating behaviors, obsession with calories/grades/weight, menstrual irregularities, chronic fatigue, decrease in performance, recurrent overuse injuries, depression
Female Athlete Triad
Low energy availability
Absence of menstruation for 3 or more consecutive months
Substances that enhance one's performance above normal standards.
Energy enhancing substance, increases heart rate, diuretic, banned in large quantities by most sports.
Used for pain management, i.e. morphine and codeine
Substance that decreases the heart rate
Increases urine output, causes dehydration.
Increases muscle size, MANY negative side effects (know these from your list in your notes...)
Human Growth Hormone
Naturally found in the body, produced by the pituitary gland
Causes an increase in red blood cell production.
Practice of removing blood from the athlete, storing it and re-injecting prior to a competition.
Deadens pain at a specific site.
Also known as the Inflammation Phase
Includes the first 48-72 hours after an injury
Cell death due to lack of oxygen
Signs of Inflammation
Loss of function
Also known as the Repair and Regeneration Phase
Lasts 3-4 weeks
Scar tissue begins to form
Protein which makes up scar tissue
Also known as the Maturation Phase
Can last up to 1 year post injury
Strengthening of scar tissue occurs during this phase
Overgrowth of scar tissue that has become excessively tight
Tissues grow according to the stresses placed upon them.
First Degree Injury
Grade 1 or Mild
Tissue has been "over-stretched"
Second Degree Injury
Grade 2 or Moderate
Tissue is partially torn
Third Degree Injury
Grade 3 or Severe
Complete rupture of the tissue
Minor wound in which the skin's surface is rubbed or scraped away
Tearing or pulling away of part of a structure
Puncture wound caused by teeth
Skin wound usually caused by friction
A bruise to a bone or muscle from an outside force causing tissue damage and internal bleeding
A jagged cut or tear in the skin
Soft tissue injury caused by an insect
Ringworm, caused by fungus
Jock itch, caused by fungus
Athletes foot, caused by fungus
Bacterial skin infection, characterized by crusted pustules
Bacterial skin infection, resistant to broad spectrum antibiotics
Viral skin infection, characterized by small fleshy bumps
Viral skin infection, characterized by small black dots on the bottom of the feet
Non-contagious skin condition, characterized by itchy red rash
Injury evaluation used to assess the nature, site and severity of a musculoskeletal injury.
Most important step in a HIPS evaluation.
This step of an injury evaluation is purely observational.
While evaluating an injury, you touch and feel the injured area.
The last stage of your injury evaluation; includes ROM, Stress tests, Neurological, Circulatory and Functional tests.
Motions performed by the athlete alone.
Movements that are performed by the examiner with the athlete relaxed.
Athlete contracts the body part while the examiner provides resistance.
Bleeding characterized by bright red, spurting blood and is the most difficult to control.
Bleeding characterized by dark red, steady flow of blood.
Bleeding characterized by oozing of blood and has the greatest risk of infection.
Failure of the cardiovascular system to keep adequate blood circulating to the vital organs. S/S include anxiety/restlessness, weak/rapid pulse, low blood pressure, and cold/clammy skin.
Principles of splinting
When in doubt, splint.
Splint in the position you find it.
Immobilize the joint above and below.
Check distal circulation before and after applying splint.
Treatment includes slowly warming in cool water. Loosely bandage the area. Do not rub. Seek medical attention.
Core body temperature decreases as the body's warming mechanism fails.
Brain must "reset" itself, may be manifested with full body convulsions.
Treatment includes protecting the athletes from dangerous objects, monitor their ABC's, activate EMS if last longer than 5 minutes.
Severe allergic reaction.
S/S may include a rash, swelling of the face and tongue, dizziness and restriction of air passages.
Least serious heat illness characterized by muscle spasms, usually in the calf or abdominal muscles. Treat by stretching, replacing water and lost minerals.
Most common heat illness characterized by mild headache, fatigue, mild dizziness, profuse sweating, skin pale/grey. Treat by cooling athlete down and replacing fluids.
Life threatening heat illness characterized by flushed skin, sweating stops, change in consciousness. Treat by cooling down as fast as possible, monitor ABC's, replace fluids if conscious, seek medical treatment.
Temporary reduction of blood flow/oxygen to the brain.
Imbalance of sugar and insulin in the bloodstream. Treat by giving the athlete sugar.
Bacterial infection causing pain in the lower right quadrant, fever, abdominal cramping and rebound pain.
Protrusion through a weakened or torn abdominal muscle.
S/S include bruised/swollen/rigid abdomen, vomiting blood, abnormal pulse, cool/moist skin.
Treatment includes activating EMS, treat for shock, monitor ABC's.
Abdominal injury characterized by pain in the upper left quadrant and Kehr's Sign.
Shoulder blade, includes the acromion process, spine and glenoid fossa
Upper arm bone, includes medial and later epicondyles
Elbow bone, pinky finger side of the arm
Forearm bone, thumb side
Fingers and toes, 14 on each appendage
Joint on the tip of the shoulder, injury to it is called a separation
Joint of the shoulder which causes the most motion, injury to it is called a dislocation or subluxation
Metacarpal Phalengeal joint
Joints that form the big knuckles in your hand
Finger and toe joints, specified using PIP, DIP and IP
abbreviation for acromioclavicular
Cartilage ring that deepens the shoulder socket
Rotator cuff muscles - Supraspinatus, Infraspinatus, Teres minor, Subscapularis
Large, superficial muscle of the shoulder, causes shoulder abduction
Muscle that flexes the elbow
Muscle that extends the elbow
Shin bone, includes medial malleolus and tibial tuberosity
Smaller lower leg bone, includes lateral malleolus
Heel bone, one of the tarsals
One of the tarsals, all ankle motions occur around this bone
Main knee joint, allows for knee flexion/extension
Articulation of the knee cap
Ankle joint that allows plantar/dorsiflexion
Ankle joint that allows inversion/eversion
Joint where tarsals meet metatarsals
Metatarsal Phalengeal joint
Joint that forms the ball of the foot, just proximal to the toes
Cartilage rings that deepen the knee joint. Outer 1/3 has blood supply
Resists valgus forces in the knee
Resists varus forces in the knee
Resists anterior movement of the tibia in the knee
Resists posterior movement of the tibia in the knee
Attaches the quadriceps muscle group to the tibia
Attaches the calf muscles to the calcaneus
Anterior tibiofibular ligament
Ligament that is injured with a "high" ankle sprain
Anterior talofibular ligament
Abbreviated ATF, most commonly injured ankle ligament
Medial ankle ligament, resists eversion
Most superficial quadricep muscle, located on the anterior, superior thigh
Quadricep muscle, forms a tear-drop shape on the medial thigh
Quadricep muscle, located on the anterior, lateral thigh
Semimembranosus and Semitendinosus
Medial hamstring muscles
Lateral hamstring muscle
Shin muscle, dorsiflexes the ankle
Large, superficial calf muscle. Has a medial and lateral portion. Plantarflexes the ankle.
Deeper calf muscle, helps with plantarflexion
Muscle group that everts the ankle
Mechanism of injury for most upper extremity injuries
MOI: FOOSH, fall on tip of shoulder, direct impact.
Treatment: Immobilize and send for x-rays
Injury caused by repetitive overhead activity, which causes pinching of the structures under the acromion
Tennis elbow, caused by repetitive wrist extension
Little leaguer's elbow, caused by repetitive wrist flexion
Injured from direct impact to anterior thigh musculature
Caused by sudden stretch or sudden contraction
MOI: twisting or squatting
Caused by deceleration, valgus force and rotation with the foot planted. Hears a "pop".
Also known as Jumper's Knee
Injury caused by abnormal patellar tracking
Medial Tibial Stress Syndrome
Can be either an inversion or eversion injury.
Medial heel pain, particularly in the morning. Stretching the calf muscles can help reduce pain.
Hyperextension of the great toe
Cranial nerve responsible for smell
Cranial nerve responsible for sight
Cranial nerve responsible for eye movement (pupil response, etc.)
Cranial nerve responsible for eye movement down and lateral
Cranial nerve responsible for chewing and face sensations
Cranial nerve responsible for lateral eye movement
Cranial nerve responsible for facial expressions and taste on anterior 2/3 of tongue
Cranial nerve responsible for hearing and balance
Cranial nerve responsible for taste on posterior 1/3 of tongue and carotid blood pressure
Cranial nerve responsible for swallowing and heart rate
Cranial nerve responsible for neck muscle movement
Cranial nerve responsible for tongue movement
Ringing in the ears
Memory loss. Can be retrograde or anterograde.
Exaggerated curvature of the lumbar spine
Exaggerated curvature of the thoracic spine
Lateral curvature of the spine
Inflammation of the eye, causing redness and crusting
Second Impact Syndrome
Potentially life threatening condition that occurs if an athlete receives another concussion before a previous concussion is resolved.
Coverings that surround the brain and spinal cord. Consists of the dura mater (outermost layer), arachnoid mater, and pia mater.
Surrounds the brain and spinal cord. Provides protection and nourishment to the CNS.
Bone surrounding the auditory canal (ear)
Part of the temporal bone, the bump behind your ear
Pair of bones that form the top and sides of the skull
Bone that forms the back of your skull
Bone that forms the bridge of your nose
Upper jaw bone
Lower jaw bone
Section of spine that connects with the rib cage
Low back bones
Section of the spine that connects with the pelvis
Hole in the vertebra that the spinal cord passes through
Posterior bony prominence on a vertebra
Lateral bony prominence on a vertebra
Large bony block on anterior side of vertebra that is responsible for weigh bearing
Neck muscle that turns the head to the opposite side
Large posterior neck muscle
Gate Control Theory
Concept that explains how cold can "numb" pain.
Physiological effects of cold
Decrease in tissue temperature
Decrease in muscle spasms
Decrease in pain perception
Hypersensitivity to cold
Over superficial nerves
Stages of cryotherapy
Cold sprays which use rapid evaporation of chemicals to freeze skin.
Effects are temporary and used to treat trigger points.
Physiological effects of Heat
Increase in circulation
Decrease muscle spasms
Decrease pain perception
Decrease joint stiffness
Increase general relaxation
Loss of sensation
Application to genitals, pregnant abdomen, malignancy
Moist heat pack
Sound waves delivered to the tissues through a transducer which cause tissue vibration, friction, and heat production.
Causes vasodilation and vasoconstriction within the tissues
Helps increase circulation, reduce swelling and restore ROM
Physiological effects of electrotherapy
Increase circulation and ROM
Physiological effects of massage
Increase circulation and venous flow
Stretch scar tissue
Restoration to a functional level for daily living and the return to an appropriate level of competitive fitness
Factors in individualizing a rehab program
Severity of the injury
Stage of tissue healing
Type of treatment
Sport specific demands
General guidelines of rehabilitation
Program should be individualized
Be as aggressive as possible without causing harm
Program must be progressive
Involve injured athlete with the team
Use a variety of equipment
Focus on correct form/technique
Rehab Phase I
Goals for this phase include:
Decrease pain, swelling, and inflammation
Maintain cardiovascular endurance and uninjured muscular strength
Exercising the opposite uninjured limb may help maintain the muscles of the injured limb.
Rehab Phase II
This phase begins as soon as pain and swelling are controlled.
Restore full ROM
Begin working on muscular endurance and power
Begin balance and proprioception exercises
Maintain cardiovascular endurance and strength of uninjured areas
Rehab Phase III
Goals for this phase include:
Begin sport specific functional exercises
Ensure correct form/technique
Restore balance and proprioception
Protect against further injury (brace/taping as needed)
Return to full activity
To facilitate improvement, the system must be progressively and gradually challenged.
Ways to implement the overload principle
Increase repetitions or sets
Increase rate/intensity of exercise
Increase duration of exercise
5 Psychological Phases
2 types of athletes ("mental toughness")
Athletes who deny pain or loss of function.
Athletes who view injury as a source of relief.
Allows the athlete to set goals over things they have control over.
Generally more effective.
Directed towards the end result, usually based on the reward of winning.
Bring breaths to a slow rhythmic pace.
Can reduce stress and anxiety.
Progressive Muscle Relaxation
Alternately flexing and relaxing muscle groups throughout the body.
Use as many senses as possible.
Loss of vigor, initiative and successful performance.
May be caused by long/losing seasons, monotony, high levels of stress, and poor eating habits.
State of physical, mental and emotional exhaustion where an individual has a decreased ability to cope with minor daily frustrations and may not be able to cope with major problems.