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Chapter 48 AP Biology
Terms in this set (38)
Individual cells in the nervous system that receive, integrate, and transmit information.
The mass of nerve tissue that is the main control center of the nervous system
Masses of nerve cell bodies
Largest part of a typical neuron; contains the nucleus and much of the cytoplasm
Branchlike parts of a neuron that are specialized to RECEIVE information.
A threadlike extension of a neuron that TRANSMITS nerve impulses away from the cell body.
The conical region of a neuron's axon where it joins the cell body; typically the region where nerve signals is generated.
the junction between the axon tip of the sending neuron and the dendrite or cell body of the receiving neuron
chemical messengers that cross the synaptic gaps between neurons
A bulb at the end of an axon in which neurotransmitter molecules are stored and released.
Presynaptic and postsynaptic neurons
Presynaptic: The neuron that carries the impulse towards the synapse
Postsynaptic: The neuron that carries the impulse away from the synapse.
glial cells (glia)
cells in the nervous system that support, nourish, and protect neurons; found in vertebrates and most invertebrates
Three stages of information processing in a nervous system
Sensory input, integration, and motor output
neurons that carry incoming information about external stimuli from the sensory receptors to the brain and spinal cord
Central nervous system neurons that internally communicate and intervene between the sensory inputs and motor outputs; majority of neurons in brain
neurons that carry outgoing information from the brain and spinal cord to the muscles and glands
Central Nervous System (CNS)
Brain and spinal cord; Integration and command center
Peripheral Nervous System (PNS)
the sensory and motor neurons that connect the central nervous system (CNS) to the rest of the body.
Bundles of neuron fibers (axons) that are routed together in the peripheral nervous system.
membrane potential (mV)
Difference in voltage across the plasma membrane; always given in terms of voltage inside the cell relative to voltage outside the cell
electrical charge across the cell membrane of a resting neuron
a carrier protein that uses ATP to actively transport sodium ions out of a cell and potassium ions into the cell
A transmembrane protein channel that allows a specific ion to diffuse across the membrane down its concentration or electrochemical gradient.
Gated ion channels
ion channels in neurons that open or close in response to stimuli
The movement of the membrane potential of a cell away from rest potential in a more negative direction.
The process during the action potential when typically sodium is rushing into the cell (through gated sodium channels) causing the interior to become more positive.
a neural impulse; a brief electrical charge that travels down an axon; have a constant magnitude; used for transmitting a signal long distance; occurs when depolarization increases voltage to threshold
Voltage-gated ion channels
Channels that open or close in response to a change in the membrane potential.
Level of stimulation needed to trigger a neural impulse
a period of inactivity after a neuron has fired; second action potential cannot be initiated
A layer of fatty tissue segmentally encasing the fibers of many neurons; enables vastly greater transmission speed of neural impulses as the impulse hops from one node to the next.
Oligodendrocytes (CNS) and Schwann cells (PNS)
The two types of glia that form myelin sheaths around axons.
nodes of Ranvier
Gaps in the myelin sheath to which voltage-gated sodium channels are confined; depolarized region between Schwann cells in the axon of a neuron
Ligand-gated ion channel
Type of membrane receptor that has a region that can act as a "gate" when the receptor changes shape; receptor protein that binds and responds to neurotransmitters
A major excitatory neurotransmitter; involved in memory
Gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA)
a widely distributed amino acid transmitter, and the main inhibitory transmitter in the mammalian nervous system
Neurotransmitters derived from amino acids, includes norepinephrine, dopamine, and serotonin
neurotransmitters linked to pain control, decrease pain perception, reduce urine output, decrease respiration, and produce happiness; synthesized in brain during times of emotional or physical stress (example: child birth)
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