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Natural Hazards

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Without extratropical weather systems, the Arctic would be?
Cooler
An extratropical cyclone that depends rapidly along the east coast of the US is called a?
Nor'easter
Gusts, a short period of intense rainfall, and an abrupt drop in temperature accompany the passage of a?
Cold front
The Martian atmosphere has?
Extratropical cyclones
In summer, a large fraction of the North Atlantic Ocean is covered by a?
Stationary high pressure system
On average, surface winds in the tropics of the Northern Hemisphere blow from?
Northeast
Steady surface winds cross the lines of constant pressure largely because of?
Frictional force
___________ is not essential for the formation of a jet stream.
Decreasing temperature with altitude
Around 10-15 km in altitude, the Coriolis force on average points toward?
The equator
The Coriolis force deflects the air flow to the ______ in the Northern Hemisphere and to the _____ in the Southern Hemisphere.
Right, left
Between 2-15 km in altitude, the average altitude of a constant pressure surface is __________ over the pole relative to the tropics
Depressed
In the atmosphere pressure decreases with altitude because?
The force of gravity is downward
For an ideal gas, pressure is proportional to?
Temperature and density
The temperature of an ascending air parcel decreases primarily because?
The parcel expands
The downward solar radiation at the top of the atmosphere maximizes (per area per unit time) at?
The summer pole
The atmospheric temperature decreases with increasing altitude partly because the atmosphere is transparent to the?
sunlight
Which is not a greenhouse gas: carbon dioxide, water, or oxygen?
Oxygen
The average ground temperature of the Earth is kept higher than expected mainly by?
Absorption and re-emission of infrared radiation by the atmosphere
Nearly half of the incoming solar radiation is?
Absorbed by the ground
The temperature of the Earth necessary to balance the net incoming solar radiation equal:
255 K
Solar constant is _________ to the luminosity of the Sun and ___________ to the square of the distance from the Sun.
proportional, inversely proportional
Emission of radiation by the planet Earth is proportional to the _____________
4th power to temperature
_______ play a big part in scattering solar radiation back into space
Clouds
The peak intensity of the radiation emitted by the Sun is in the?
Spectrum of visible light
Heat index is higher than the actual air temperature because of?
Moisture
When moist unsaturated air cools, relative humidity _______
increases
In thermal radiation, internal energy of matter partially changes to?
Electromagnetic energy
Coming out of a hot shower, you feel cool because your body loses heat through __________________________
Latent heat of vaporization
Computer simulations suggest that global warming makes hurricanes ______ frequent overall, but strong ones ______ frequent
less, more
The city of New Orleans is subsiding faster than it used to because?
Levees keep the Mississippi River from flooding
Superstorm Sandy (2012) was unusual in many ways, but the most unusual part was?
It made a left turn to land in New Jersey
Superstorm Sandy made a landfall in NJ at the height of?
Negative NAO
Which of the following is insignificant as a natural service function of hurricanes: Rejuvenate and diversify ecosystem, nutrient transport in the oceans, or keep the high-latitude regions warm?
Keep the high-latitude regions warm
Which of the following is primarily an atmospheric phenomenon: Atlantic Multidecadal Oscillation, North Atlantic Oscillation, or El Niño/Southern Oscillation?
North Atlantic Oscillation
During El Niño: the sea surface temperatures of the eastern Pacific are anomalously high, the sea surface temperatures of the western Pacific are anomalously high, or the trade winds are anomalously strong?
the sea surface temperatures of the eastern Pacific are anomalously high
In El Niño years, the northern-tier states tend to experience:
A mild winter
Which of the following states observes thunderstorms most frequently: Alaska, Kansas, or Florida?
Florida
Where does lightning occur most frequently: over land, over the oceans, or equally over land and oceans?
Over land
A lightning was spotted and 3 seconds later a thunder was heard. The lightning was how far away?
1 km away
When lightning is close you should NOT do which of the following: seek shelter under a tall tree, stay inside a parked car, or move out of water as soon as possible?
Seek shelter under a tall tree
Over the Eurasian continent tornadoes are relatively infrequent because?
The Tibetan Plateau separates warm tropical air and cold Arctic air
Most tornadoes in the Northern Hemisphere spin counterclockwise because?
they are spawned by parent storms that are affected by the rotation of the Earth
Which of the following statements about tornadoes is incorrect: A hook echo in radar image is a good indication of a tornado, tornadoes do not hit large cities, or wedge tornadoes are a wide and more violent kind?
Tornadoes do not hit large cities
The Enhanced Fujita (EF) Scale for tornadoes is based on?
Damage
In the US, on average, the leading cause of crop damage is?
Droughts
In 1997-1998 a number of wildfires occurred in Indonesia because of?
El Nino
Most small wildfires are started by?
Human activities
A high-temperature wildfire whose flames reach the canopies of trees is?
A crown fire
A wildfire on a mountain slope usually migrates?
Up the slope
The Santa Ana Winds start from the Great Basin as
A cold, dry air
In the US, the amount of CO2 emitted by wildfires is
About 4-6% of human emissions
About 3000 km below the Earth's surface lies the boundary between
The mantle and the outer core
The Earth's mantle is?
elastic on short timescale and plastic on geologic timescale
Most tectonic plates are created at?
Midocean ridges
In the '50s the theory of seafloor spreading was supported by?
Magnetic striping
Average speed of seafloor spreading is?
A few inches per year
Which of the following is created by a hot spot activity: Iceland, Hawaii, or New Zealand?
Hawaii
Large earthquakes and active volcanoes are most common in
Subduction zones
The San Andreas Fault is a
strike-slip fault
High-energy, low-intensity earthquakes can be produced by
tectonic creep
Which of the following does NOT apply to the S-wave?
travels faster than the P-wave
The difference in the energy level between M6.5 and M3.4 earthquakes is
(32 x 32 x 32 x 1.4) times
Which of the following was NOT the reason why Loma Prieta Earthquake (CA 1989) caused a great damage to San Francisco, 100km away from the epicenter?
Unprecedented magnitude
Which of the following was NOT a plate boundary earthquake?
New Madrid (1811-1812)
During the Great San Francisco Earthquake (1906), more than 2,000 people died because of
Fires
The Parkfield earthquakes are known for their
Repeatability
Intra-plate earthquakes are felt in a vast area because of
A hard, unfractured crust
Which of the following does NOT cause a tsunami: Underwater earthquake, underwater landslide, or gravitational pull of the moon?
Gravitational pull of the moon
An M6.5 earthquake in the Pacific Ocean most likely
Will not create a tsunami
A tsunami originated off the coast of Japan will reach the southern tip of South America in about
24 hours
A typical tsunami in the outer ocean has a wave height of
1 meter or less
When the depth of water becomes 1/16, the wave speed becomes
1/4
Which of the following was NOT a major reason why the Japanese tsunami of 3/11/11 became a catastrophe: a complicated coastal geometry (Ria), improper warning, or land subsidence?
Improper warning
Which of the following statement about tsunami is correct: Just before the arrival of a tsunami, water always recedes from the beach, the first batch of a tsunami is always the highest and most powerful, or when a tsunami recedes toward sea it causes more damage with the debris it created on the way in?
When a tsunami recedes toward sea it causes more damage with the debris it created on the way in
Which of the magma forms has least silica/gas: rhyolitic magma, andesitic magma, or basaltic magma?
Basaltic magma
What type of magma leads to an explosive eruption?
High silica, high gas
A flat body and frequent, nonexplosive eruptions characterize
Mt. Kilauea (Hawaii)
Which of the following is the leading cause of deaths associated with volcanic eruptions?
Pyroclastic flows
The 2010 eruption of Eyjafjallajökull in Iceland caused
a massive disruption of air traffic
The two most abundant constituents of volcanic gas are
carbon dioxide and water vapor
Lahars and a detectable climate cooling followed the eruption of
Mt. Pinatubo
The 1883 eruption of this volcano caused a massive tsunami and killed over 36,000
Mt. Krakatoa
Which type of load is most abundant in river water?
suspended load
In a steady river flow, discharge is
constant
The headwaters region of a drainage basin is characeterized by
erosion and steep slope
Where a river suddenly exits a narrow, steep canyon and enters a flatland, it tends to form
an alluvial fan
Which of the following is NOT a typical condition leading to a flash flood: a prolonged rainfall over a broad region and water-saturated ground, a few months after wildfire outbreaks, or an intense, short rainfall over the headwaters region?
a prolonged rainfall over a broad region and water-saturated ground
Favorable conditions for tropical cyclone formation include _________ ocean surface, _______ vertical wind shear
warm, weak
Human interaction with cyclones is characterized by ________ population growth along coasts, and _________ wetlands, which used to act as a buffer zone, increasing the risk of storm surge
increased, disappearing
Precipitation, rejuvenation and diversification of ecosystems, nutrient transport in the oceans, poleward heat transport (extratropical cyclones) are all ________________________ of cyclones
Natural service functions
Superstorm Sandy was a unique tropical/extratropical ________ steered westward by a highly meandering jet stream, whereas a typical late-season hurricane would become an extratropical cyclone, merge with an eastward jet stream and die out
hybrid
Superstorm Sandy was the ______ costliest hurricane in US history
second
Th North Atlantic Oscillation is a straight line in ________ mode and a meandering line in ________ mode.
positive, negative
The El Nino-Southern Oscillation involves both the ________ and the _______ and their mutual reinforcement.
ocean, atmosphere
El Nino causes change in _________ distribution and ___________
sea surface temperature, wind pattern
El Nino is on a __ to ___ year cycle.
3, 7
Today, the term El Nino is only used for the years with exceptionally ______ temperatures that last for more than 6 months.
warm
La Nina is only used for the years with exceptionally ______ temperatures that last for more than 6 months.
cool
During the last 50 years ____ El Ninos have occurred, with the strongest on record being the _____ and the ______ events
11, 1982-83, 1997-98
Trade winds move from ______ pressure to ______ pressure near the Equator.
high, low
Normal conditions would bring rain to _________; El Nino conditions brings rain to _________.
Indonesia, Eastern Pacific an Americas
Thunderstorms, lightning, and tornadoes can all be defined as ________ weather hazards
convective
Thunderstorms have a lifetime of _____ and a horizontal scale of _______ of km
hours, 10's
Favorable conditions for thunderstorms _____ and ____ air aloft, _____ and ______ air below, _____ of air due to fronts or orographic forcing, and _________(large changes in wind velocity and direction
cold, dry, warm, moist, uplift, wind shear
_____% of thunderstorms are severe thunderstroms
10
A severe thunderstorm has which of the following elements: Wind speed of over 93 km per hour, or hailstones larger than 1.9 cm, or a tornado?
Any one
Linear belts of thunderstorms are called _________
Squall lines
Large cells with single updrafts are called ____________
Supercells
Circular cluster of storm cells are called ____________
Mesoscale convective systems
There are two kinds of lightning:
Cloud to cloud (75%) and Cloud to Ground (25%)
Temperature of lightning: 3,000 K, 30,000 K, or 300,000 K?
30,000 K
Energy of lightning?
100,000,000 V
Cloud to ground lightning is caused by collisions of _________ charged ice crystals and ________ charged graupel that create static electricity. ______ are lighter than ________.
positively, negatively, ice crystals, graupel
Calculate the distance of lightning:
340 m/s x Time Lag (sec)
Condensation funnel, multiple vortex, land spout, waterspout, and wedge tornado are all kinds of
Tornados
Tornados rotate cyclonically due to?
The parent mesocyclone, which often spins counterclockwise in the Northern Hemisphere due to the Earth's rotation
The Enhanced Fujita Scale is based on?
Observed damage
A tornado is created by stretching the rotating column of air of a?
parent storm
Heat waves, droughts, dust storms, and wildfires can all be defined as?
Dry Weather Hazards
Dry weather hazards are caused by subsidence in strong _____________ pressure system that hinders convection and air movement. Heat gets trapped near the ground.
High
A _________ is an extended period of unusually low precipitation that produces temporary shortage of water
drought
_______ affects more people than any other natural hazard in the United States
drought
Dust storms are characterized by _______ wind and _______ visibility.
high, low
What is a key cause of desertification?
Overgrazing
What are the three ingredients necessary for a fire?
High temperature, fuel (trees), and oxygen
What are the three phases of wildfires?
Preignition (Preheating: rising temperature and loss of water, pyrolysis: chemical breakdown of fuel), Combustion (ignition, flaming or glowing/smoldering), Extinction
How can wildfires ignite?
Lightning, volcanic eruption, meteor/asteroid, human action (it takes more than one ignition to start a fire)
What are the three elements of a fire environment?
Fuel (leaves, twigs, grass, shrubs, debris, trees, peat), topography (amount of sunlight, air circulation), weather (temperature, precipitation, relative humidity, winds)
_________ fires creep below surface, smoldering.
Ground
________ fires move along surface, varying intensity
Surface
_________ fires are flaming combustion through canopies of trees (aided by strong winds and slopes)
Crown
In a wildfire situation, _______ increase circulation, meaning the supply of oxygen and accelerate fire migration.
Winds
In a wildfire situation, _______ increases soil moisture, slowing down preignition
Precipitation
In a wildfire situation, _______ ignites fires
Lightning
__________ release carbon monoxide, organic compounds, and nitrogen oxide into the atmosphere.
Wildfires
Wildfire buildup a ___________ layer of soil and a lack of vegetation that increases surface runoff, leading to floods, soil erosion, and landslides.
Hydrophobic
Some _____________ of wildfires are: enriches soils (carbon-rich ash), kills microorganisms, reduces competition, reduces excessive fuel (dead trees), and some species have adapted to grow after fire.
Natural service functions
_____________ kills the most people in the US.
Extreme heat
___________ damage the most property (in millions of dollars)
Hurricanes
___________ damage the most crops (in millions of dollars)
Droughts
________ are both gases and liquids. They have no particular shape, are freely deformable.
Fluids
________ are hard to deform, equation of state applicable to the Earth's interior not well known.
Solids
Molten rock or Ice behave like ______ on a short time scale, but behave like _________ on a long time scale.
solids, fluids
A material is said to be _______ if it is deformable
with force but regains original shape when the force is
gone (e.g. rubber band)
elastic
A material is ________ if its shape changes irreversibly
with force (e.g. play dough)
plastic
A material is __________ if it has no particular shape but
deforms in response to force (e.g. honey)
viscous
___________ refers to the amount of deformation of an elastic body per unit force.
Rigidity
The ______________ refers to the large-scale geologic processes that deform Earth's crust and produce landforms; ocean basins, continents, mountains. It is driven by forces deep within Earth. Involves transfer of energy and momentum.
Tectonic Cycle
A __________________ zone is where one plate is sliding under the other one, and the rock melts and gets pushed up as magma through a volcano.
Subduction
A _________ boundary is one where the two plates are moving away from each other; yields mid ocean ridges. A _________ boundary is one where the plates are moving alongside each other in opposite directions. A ___________ boundary is one where the two plates ram into each other head on; causes subduction zones, and thus volcanoes.
divergent, transform, convergent
A _________ is a fracture or a system of fractures in lithosphere along with rocks on opposite sides move (or have moved) relative to each other)
Fault
_____________ is the place on the surface of the Earth directly above the earthquake's origin (focus or hypocenter)
Epicenter
The sudden release of elastic energy is due to __________, that generates seismic waves
Faulting
A transform boundary can create a ______________
Strike-slip fault
A convergent boundary can create a ___________________
Dip-slip fault
A divergent boundary can create a ________________
Normal fault
Rocks rupture along a fault when stress exceeds their ability to withstand it; rapid slippage will lead to an __________________
Earthquake
A fault is considered active if it has moved during the last ____________ years
10,000
______________ refers to the gradual movement along a fault, unaccompanied by felt earthquakes. These earthquakes can register M6-7 because of a large area of rupture, despite small slips.
Tectonic creep
Fault rupture releases energy in the form of _________________
Seismic waves
___________ is fast, compressional (solid, liquid, gas) and usually moves at about 6 km / sec
P-Waves
____________ are slower, transverse (solid), and do not travel in plastic materials, and moves at about 3 km / sec
S-Waves
_______________ of an earthquake is the amount of energy released. Depends on the area ruptured along the fault plane, the amount of movement (slippage) along the fault, and the rigidity of the rocks near the focus of the earthquake.
Magnitude
______________ of an earthquake quantifies the effects of ground motion on people and structure. This is determined by the earthquake magnitude, the distance to the epicenter, the depth of the focus, the direction of the rupture, and local geologic conditions.
Intensity
____________ refers to how the energy of an earthquake is directed along the direction of rupture.
Directivity
______________ refers to how the slowing down of seismic waves as they move through mud or sand accumulates energy.
Material amplification
______________ refers to how a water-saturated sand layer turns into liquid as seismic waves move through it.
...
Five stages of the Earthquake Cycle
Inactivity, Small Earthquakes, Foreshocks, Main shock, Aftershocks
_________________ are the adjustment to the deformation caused by the main shock, and are usually smaller than the main shock, and more predictable (frequency and magnitude decay with time)
Aftershocks
Natural service functions of ________________ include enhanced hydrologic and rock cycles, landform development, and future earthquake hazard reduction.
earthquakes
Three Types of Human-Caused Earthquakes
Water Reservoirs, which activate and create faults, Deep Waste Disposal, which creates high fluid pressure, and Nuclear Explosion
__________ are massive ocean waves produced by the sudden vertical displacement of ocean water.
Tsunamis
Causes of Tsunamis
A large earthquake displacing seafloor, underwater landslide triggered by earthquake, underwater volcanic eruption, impact of asteroid/comet
_______________ is the maximum height of water on land.
Run up height
______________ is the horizontal extent of flooding
Inundation
_______ is flowing magma
Lava
___________ is dust, ask, lapili, blocks, bombs
Pyroclastic materials
Volcanic gases include:
H2O, CO2, H2S, SO2
Magma is made of ____________
Melted silicate minerals
________ silica yields viscous (less flowing) magma
High
________ gas content yields more explosive magma
High
Basaltic magma: 50% _______, 1200 ______, 0.5% _______, not _______, ______ explosive
silica, degrees, gas, viscous, not
Andesitic, rhyolitic magma: 60-70% _______, 750-1000 _____, 2-5% _____, _______, _______explosive
silica, degrees, gas, viscous, highly
_________ volcanoes are characterized by basaltic magma and are generally nonexplosive. Examples include Hawaii, Iceland.
Shield
________ volcanes, like Mt. St Helens and Mt. Rainier are characterized by more viscous and explosive magma, lava, and pyroclastic debris.
Strato
__________ volcanoes, like Lassen Peak and Mono Craters are highly viscous and explosive. A literal blast.
Domes
_____________ are an accumulation of pyroclastic debris and small lava granules. Common on the flanks of larger volcanoes.
Cinder cones
___________ are massive depressions formed during explosive ejection of magma and collapse of the upper cones, 20 km or more in diameter.
Calderas
Runny, low-gas magma, low silica, high temperature
Characteristics of a non-explosive volcano
Viscous, gassy magma, high silica, low temperature
Characteristics of an explosive volcano
____________ are mudflows/debris flows caused by rain over a layer of dust/ash; also caused by ice and snow melted by volcano, fast-moving mixtures of fine sediments and large rocks, like wet cement
Lahars
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