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NTDT Exam 2
Terms in this set (90)
How many amino acids are there? How many are essential?
20 amino acids, 9 are essential
Describe the chemical structure of amino acids an how they are different from carbs and fat
Amino acids contain nitrogen
How does the chemical difference between carbs and fat affect the use of protein for energy and how the body deals with protein breakdown waste products?
-Nitrogen must first be removed from amino acids before energy production
-Nitrogen waste must be converted and removed from the body
Name the key functions of protein
-Growth and maintenance, enzymes, hormones, fluid balance,
acid-base balance, blood clotting, transporters, antibodies.
-Lastly, energy (ATP) production - protein is only used for energy under conditions where other
macronutrients are inadequate OR protein intake is excessive.
What is nitrogen balance?
when nitrogen intake and synthesis = nitrogen excretion
Positive nitrogen balance
Positive balance with synthesis > excretion
-Muscle mass building
Negative nitrogen balance
Negative balance with excretion > synthesis
-Burns and injuries
-Fever and other wasting illness
-Weight loss with muscle wasting
What does protein depend on? What are some high quality protein sources?
Digestibility and amino acid composition
-Eggs, meat, fish, poultry, dairy (animal products)
-Good non-animal sources of high quality protein are tofu and quinoa
What is the RDA for protein?
What are some concerns regarding excessive protein intake?
-Upper level of AMDR is 35%
-High protein intake can contribute to progression of heart disease (may provide too much saturated fat and iron if protein is from animal sources)
-High intake of red meat linked to cancer
-Very high protein intake may also increase calcium loss in urine and increase risk of osteoporosis
- Too many kCalories from protein can contribute to weight gain and obesity (too much protein = extra urea load on kidneys and increased risk of kidney disease)
What are two types of carbohydrates?
Simple and Complex
-Glucose (blood sugar)
-Fructose (fruit sugar)
-Human stores: glycogen (liver an muscle tissue)
-Plant stores: Starch
-Not digestible: Fiber
Which monosaccharides make up the following disaccharides?
-Maltose: glucose + glucose
-Sucrose: glucose + fructose
-Lactose: glucose + galactose
Compare an contrast the TWO primary types of fiber with respect to their physical properties and fermentation
-Insoluble in water, SPEEDS UP transit
-Soluble in water, gel SLOWS DOWN transit
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