55 terms

1900 - 1945 Ch 25,26,27 WWI, Interwar Era and WWII #6 PostModern Era

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Causes of WWI
Imperialism
During the latter half of the nineteenth century, Western European countries scrambled for any available land in Africa to add to the colonies they already owned in South and Southeast Asia, in the Americas, and in the Pacific. Thus, imperialism was a driving force behind tensions in Europe leading up to the archduke's assassination.
trench warfare
The style of fighting on the Western Front was called ______, in which soldiers dug opposing trenches for protection from the enemy, but modern technologies made it impossible to avoid high casualty rates.
Total War
This form of war, employed during both World War I and World War II, relies on the use of ideologies such as fascism, nationalism, and communism to mobilize all of a nation's resources to wage war. Political speeches, art, and media are also employed to gain the support of and mobilize a nation's people. _____ involves not only the soldiers of a country but also its citizens, who often become casualties, such as in the firebombing of Dresden and Nanjing massacre during World War II.
WWI: Cultural Changes
1. Social restrictions loosened in Europe and the United States so that pleasure-seeking behavior unimaginable before the war - such as drinking, racy dancing, and looser sexual morality - characterized urban life during the 1920s. The changes for women were particularly notable in less modest dress styles, unescorted attendance in public places, and less deference to fathers and husbands.
2. Secular values replaced the religious in many cities, and the rift between urban and rural lifestyles widened as the decade progressed. The reasons for these changes are complex, but the war clearly sparked them.
WHY? One explanation is that the horrors of war caused many to react by seeking escape through pleasurable, immediately gratifying behaviors. WHY? Another explanation is that the war interrupted normal social patterns, separating men and women from their traditional roles, sending women into the work place and suspending breadwinner roles for men.
Lost Generation
the generation reaching maturity during and just after World War I, a high proportion of whose men were killed during those years.
Collapse of the Ottoman Empire
This event occurred in 1918 as a result of internal factors, such as civic unrest, and external factors, mainly the empire's defeat during World War I and its occupation and partitioning by the victors. After a war of independence, Turkey emerged as a successor state in 1923.
reparations
As part of the Treaty of Versailles, Germany was ordered to pay fines to the Allies to repay the costs of the war. Opposed by the U.S., it quickly lead to a severe depression in Germany.
Treaty of Versailles
The treaty imposed on Germany by France, Great Britain, the United States, and other Allied Powers after World War I. It demanded that Germany dismantle its military and give up some lands to Poland. It was resented by many Germans.
Antibiotics
In 1928, Scottish biologist Alexander Fleming was working in his lab in London when he accidentally discovered that a particular fungus produced a substance that killed bacteria. He had discovered penicillin. Penicillin became the first antibiotic, a useful agent in curing bacterial infections.

During World War II, _____ saved the lives of soldiers who would have died in any previous war from a minor wound that became infected.

After the war, _____ spread to civilian use, where they fought a range of illnesses
Hegemony
The consistent dominance of one state or ideology over others. 1900 to the present - U.S. and Soviet hegemony replaces Western European hegemony.
influenza epidemic.
A disease situation that was spread by American soldiers contracting the disease in Kansas and bringing it to France. The disease being an entirely new strand, no one knew how to cure it. It spread to German troops during the war, disabling or killing 500,000. It stopped during cease-fire, but rose up again in the fall of that year and again in the winter, equally affecting all who were exposed and killing in days. Spreading across the globe, the disease killed 30 million people before it ended.
POST-WORLD WAR I TREATIES AND EUROPEAN BIASES
At the Versailles Conference, U.S. President Woodrow Wilson protested the idea of Allies taking lands controlled by the Central Powers as colonies, and he insisted that the principle of self-determination be applied. The other Allied powers agreed, but the differences they made among possessions reflect their belief in the superiority of people of European ancestry.

Eastern Europe was divided into new ethnically-based countries, acknowledging their rights to self-determination. However, the Turks - a non-European people - had to fight and negotiate to be recognized as an independent nation, as did Iran and Saudi Arabia. Other Arab people - in Lebanon, Syria, Palestine, and Iraq - did not win independence at all; their lands were put under the protection of France and Britain, causing them to deeply resent this treatment. Germany's African and Asian colonies also did not receive their independence.
Self-determination
the idea that a nation should have the right to determine its own future, belief that people in a territory should have the ability to choose their own government
March First Movement
non-violent protest by Korea against the Japanese, Japanese crushed the uprising and massacred many Koreans, became a rallying symbol for Korean nationalists
May Fourth Movement
A national protest in China in 1919, in which people demonstrated against the Treaty of Versailles and foreign interference.
WWI and Science
The WWI period also witnessed major paradigm shifts in several fields of science. A paradigm is a set of assumptions or models that form the basis of
thought in a field. When those assumptions are overturned, the resulting shift reveals new areas of research and inspires a creative surge in the field.
Armenian Genocide
(1915) During World War I, as the Ottoman Turkish empire fought Russian forces, some of the Armenian minority sided with the Russians. Turkey took revenge killing possibly over a million Armenians.

Armenians have argued that the
deaths constituted genocide, a Turkish attempt to eliminate the Armenian
people. The Turkish government has said the deaths were the result of
actions of war, ethnic conflicts, and disease, not genocide.
Treaty of Brest-Litovsk
A signed agreement between Russia and the Central Powers when Russia withdrew from the War. Russia surrendered Poland, the Ukraine and other territory.
Vladmir Lenin
Leader of the Bolshevik; wanted to end the provisional government/Bolshevik Revolution, Promised peasants could keep land; peace with Germany, Signed: Treaty of Brest-Litovsk: Marked end of Russia's participation in WWI, Set up a secret police force to end all resistance to his rule/Communism,
Russian Revolution
Prompted by labor unrest, personal liberties, and elected representatives, this political revolution occurred in 1917 when Czar Nicholas II was murdered and Vladimir Lenin sought control to implement his ideas of socialism.
Contrast Them: Nationalism in Europe and Nationalism in Its Colonies
Nationalism was a driving force throughout much of the nineteenth and twentieth centuries. In Europe and Japan, nationalism fueled extreme racism, fascism, and domination. National pride became almost synonymous with national expansion and conquest of other peoples. In the colonies, nationalism meant self-determination, the ability to free the nation from rule by another and determine one's own destiny. National pride meant national sovereignty, not colonial or territorial expansion.
Mandate System
One of the most controversial decisions made at Versailles had to do with the creation of the _____ ______, which set up territories as "trusteeships" under the care of the newly created League of Nations. Whereas eastern European people were organized into independent states (however imperfectly), many of the Arab territories of the Ottoman Empire and Germany's former colonies in the Pacific and in Africa were designated as _______s.
Collapse of the Ottoman Empire and the Treaty of Sevres
The Treaty of Sevres was created mainly by Britain and France. Middle Eastern leaders were mostly excluded for the decision-making process.
According to the Treaty of Sevres, the Arab lands were separated from the Ottoman
Empire, but that did not mean that Arab nationalists got the large, independent Arab state that they expected. Instead, France and Britain divided the region among themselves: the French declaring a "mandate" over Syria and Lebanon; Britain a mandate over Iraq and Palestine.

The Kurdish people were even more disappointed by the settlement. After some initial
talk of creating a small Kurdish state (from territories that are now part of Turkey), plans for
even a limited Kurdistan were soon scrapped. Kurdish lands were divided among Iran, Iraq,
Turkey and Syria. Today, the Kurds are the largest group of people in the world without their
own country
Kurds and WWI
A minority group in Turkey and neighboring countries

The Kurdish people were NOT given a state of their own in the "carving up" of the Ottoman empire by Britain and France. Kurdish lands were divided among Iran, Iraq, Turkey and Syria. Today, the Kurds are the largest group of people in the world without their own country.
Pan-Arabism
A movement that calls for unification among the peoples and countries of the Arab World, from the Atlantic Ocean to the Arabian Sea. It is closely connected to Arab nationalism, which asserts that the Arabs constitute a single nation.
Cause WWII
economic hardship, political unrest following WWI, aggressive leaders in Germany (treaty of versailles, hitler creates third reich and blames problems on jews), Italy, and Japan wanted to expand their nations, Germany invaded Poland, and Japan attacked the US (pearl harbor)
fascism
This political system combines extreme nationalism with authoritarian rule. Fascists oppose both democracy and communism. The system first emerged in Mussolini's Italy
and Hitler's Germany in the years following World War I.
Spanish Civil War
In 1936 a rebellion erupted in Spain after a coalition of Republicans, Socialists, and Communists was elected. General Francisco Franco led the rebellion. The revolt quickly became a civil war. The Soviet Union provided arms and advisers to the government forces while Germany and Italy sent tanks, airplanes, and soldiers to help Franco.
General Francisco Franco
In 1936 the Spanish Civil War began. Franco led the Fascists, fighting republican forces. In 1939, the Fascist forces won (with help from Italy and Germany). Franco ruled until his death in 1975.
Guernica
a Spanish town that was brutally bombed and was full of innocent civilians it was supposed to encourage fear, Picasso painted a famous painting capturing Guernica
Getulio Vargas
Dictator of Brazil from 1930-1945 and 1951-1954. Defeated in the presidential election of 1930, he overthrew the government and created the Estado Novo (New State), a dictatorship that emphasized industrialization and helped the urban poor but did little to alleviate the problems of the peasants.
holocaust
This massive killing of lews by the Nazi Party took place during World War II at concentration camps such as Auschwitz. The Holocaust resulted in the deaths of some 6 million lews. The Nazis also killed gypsies, homosexuals, and other individuals they viewed as undesirable or political opponents.
nationalization
The transfer of industry or private property to the control of the government. Under select nationalization, the government takes control of only some industries. Complete nationalization transfers total control to the government, as in the case of the Soviet Union, following the Bolshevik Revolution.
WWII Military technology
These innovations, including tanks, airplanes, machine guns, mustard gas, and nuclear weapons, combined with new military techniques, such as firebombing, led to higher levels of wartime casualties, including civilian deaths. Examples include the death tolls from the firebombing of Dresden as well as the devastation of Hiroshima and Nagasaki.
Hiroshima and Nagasaki
These two Japanese cities were devastated by atomic bombs dropped by U.S. military forces in 1945, at the end of World War II. More than 150,000 people were killed, and these casualties helped compel the Japanese to surrender.
WWII: Major Outcomes
1. End of Western European global hegemony
2. The Creation of International Organizations
3. The Holocaust Revealed
4. Rise of a global feminist movement
5. European Reconstruction = Evidence of U.S. Hegemony
6. Decolonization
7. Peace Settlements led directly into Cold War tensions
8. Arms race after use of nuclear weapon by US
Outcomes of WWII
Outcomes WWII
• European powers' loss of empires
• Establishment of 2 major powers in the world: USA & U.S.S.R.
• War crimes trials
• Division of Europe—Iron Curtain
• Establishment of the United Nations
• Marshall Plan
• Formation of North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO) and Warsaw Pact
Neocolonialism
Also called economic imperialism, this is the domination of newly independent countries by foreign business interests that causes colonial-style economies to continue, which often caused monoculture (a country only producing one main export like sugar, oil, etc).
Dollar Diplomacy
Foreign policy created under President Taft that had the U.S. exchanging financial support ($) for the right to "help" countries make decisions about trade and other commercial ventures. Basically it was exchanging money for political influence in Latin America and the Caribbean.
Yankee imperialism
America's large influence and intervention in Latin American affairs.
Mao Zedong
1893-1976. Chinese military and political leader who led the Communist Party of China to victory against the Kuomintang in the Chinese Civil War. Leader of the People's Republic of China from establishment in 1949 till death in 1976. Heralded as an influential leader who transformed China into world power. Programs led to large unnecessary loss of life and damage to the culture, society, economy, and foreign relations.
Good Neighbor Policy
Franklin Roosevelt described his foreign policy as that of a "good neighbor." The phrase came to be used to describe the U.S. attitude toward the countries of Latin America. Under Roosevelt's "Good Neighbor Policy," the U.S. took the lead in promoting good will among these nations.

This policy came to an end after World War IT when fears of Communist influence led the United States back to its interventionist tendencies.
Chiang Kai-shek
General and leader of Nationalist China after 1925. Although he succeeded Sun Yat-sen as head of the Guomindang, he became a military dictator whose major goal was to crush the communist movement led by Mao Zedong.
Taiwan
..., a government on the island of Taiwan established in 1949 by Chiang Kai-shek after the conquest of mainland China by the communists led by Mao Zedong
Five Year Plans
Any plan for national economic or industrial development specifying goals to be reached within a five year period.(Especially taken in by the Soviet Union and China)
Caste and Great Britain
1. The British implemented laws that linked caste identity to property rights, military recruitment, and policing.
2. Caste groups that were historically landholders or farmers were given more freedom to own and develop land than castes involved in trade. The British recruited more military personnel from "warrior castes."
3. Castes identified as the lowest groups in local
societies were deemed "criminals" and required
to contact the police on a weekly basis.
Mohandas K. Gandhi
Leader of the Indian independence movement and advocate of nonviolent resistance. After being educated as a lawyer in England, he returned to India and became leader of the Indian National Congress in 1920. He appealed to the poor, led nonviolent demonstrations against British colonial rule, and was jailed many times. Soon after independence he was assassinated for attempting to stop Hindu-Muslim rioting.
Satayagraha
The policy of nonviolent resistance initiated by Gandhi as a means for pressing for political reform
Amritsar Massacre
This took place on April 13, 1919 India. It was caused by rising tensions and protests towards British rule. A large group of Indians jammed into a field knowing Dyer's new law of no public meetings. General Dyer opened fire killing 400+ and wounding 1,100. It convinced the Indians they could govern themselves.
Non Cooperation
1920, Gandhi believed that if people did not cooperate with the laws the laws would be useless
Quit India
campaign developed to gain independence from Great Britain, India's support of UK during WWII was in hopes of greater postwar autonomy granted to India; Labour Party winning in England led to announcement of full independence being granted to India
Muhammad Ali Jinnah
A lawyer who headed the Muslim League. He warned that a united India would cause conflict between Muslims and Hindus. He proposed two states, on in India for the hindus and one that would be Pakistan (land of the pure) for the muslims.
partition of India
The Partition of India is the process that led to the creation, on 14 August 1947 and 15 August 1947, respectively, of the sovereign states of Dominion of Pakistan (later Islamic Republic of Pakistan) and Union of India (later Republic of India) upon the granting of independence from the British Empire, marking the end of the British rule of India.
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