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ethics - ch. 14-16
Terms in this set (61)
Libertarians typically hold a process view of justice rather than an end state view.
Libertarians favor a minimalized government
To suggest that allowing people to earn as much money as they can because doing so gives people incentive to be maximally productive comes under which form of reasoning?
According to Rawls's maximum principle for decision-making under ignorance, people will choose that society with the least gap between the rich and the poor.
Rawls's second principle of justice requires that an inequality in goods in a society is just provided that the people have merited what they have.
In Rawls's experiment of original position, the people most likely to choose Society A are:
The method Rawls uses to derive principles for determining what social institutions are just is appeal to an imaginary situation in which people would choose principles not knowing certain possibly biasing things about themselves.
The people in the original position of choosing behind a "veil of ignorance" do not know any biasing things about themselves but do know that they would want what any person would want.
An "end state" view of economic justice is one that is concerned about how things turn out in terms of distribution of wealth in a society.
According to Robert Nozick, principles that require distribution of social benefits according to moral merit, usefulness to society, or another natural dimension are best described as which of the following?
According to a process view of economic justice, a social distribution of wealth is just if and only if the disparities in wealth are due to differences in merit, achievement, or contribution.
Libertarians do not believe that governments should try to equalize end states of wealth
Libertarians tend to emphasize negative rights, while socialists tend to stress positive rights.
Distributive justice has to do with
How goods are allocated among persons
What principle aims to compensate for the bias of arbitrary contingencies in the direction or equality?
The principle of redress
According to John Rawls in A Theory of Justice, it is always unjust for some people to be very wealthy and others to be poor.
Rawls believes justice is to social institutions as
Truth is to scientific systems
Rawls argues that the right to the most extensive equal basis liberties may be reduced if doing so benefits the worst-off in society.
The morality of inequality of opportunity is a(n) ______ ethical concern, while the morality of inequality of outcome is a(n) _____ ethical concern?
Natural law, utilitarian
According to Rawls, justice is
To suggest that Tom has a right to the money that is earned as a result of his innovative idea comes under which form of ethical reasoning?
John Rawls derives his principles of justice by asking what principles people who are concerned about the welfare of others would choose.
A libertarian conception of economic justice relies on notions of a negative right (a right not to be interfered with), while a socialist conception stresses a positive right (a right to have basic necessities).
According to a consequentialist argument regarding legal punishment, if a form of punishment is not deterring anyone from crime, then it cannot be justified
Punishment is internally related to lawbreaking, according to the deterrence viewpoint.
According to the deterrence argument for legal punishment, any kind of punishment is justified no matter what the consequences.
A retributivist argument for legal punishment is one according to which persons who break laws must be punished so that we can get personal satisfaction.
According to the retributivist argument, all those who commit serious crimes must "pay" for them and we determine how much they should pay only by considering how serious was their crime.
According to consequentialist reasoning, if other measures than imprisonment work better to deter or prevent crime that we ought to use these other measures.
A retrubutivist would uphold a just punishment for certain crimes even if the imposition of this punishment did not deter anyone from committing such crimes.
Indeterminate sentences would be more likely to be favored by those with a retributivist than those with a deterrence viewpoint.
Retributivists always support a lex talionis view and thus always will support the death penalty for murderers (as being a life for a life).
if all acts are determined by various casual factors, then on retributivist grounds punishment as such is unjustified.
Retributivists would support a not guilty plea for persons who are in fact "insane" for, because of their mental dysfunction, they then are not responsible for what they do.
how many black high school dropouts are prisoners or ex-convicts by the time reach their mid thirties?
which country has the highest incarceration rate in the world?
what is the meaning of "lex talionis"?
an eye for an eye
the cost of life in prison without parole compared to an execution is
since 1989, there have been _____ convicts who were found innocent due to DNA testing.
which of the following types of crime will always be difficult to deter?
crimes of passion
which of our moral theories is most likely to be used in support of the retribution argument for capital punishment?
which of the following is a true positive in utilitarian reasoning for capital punishment?
it works as an individual deterrent
to suggest that capital punishment is a different moral question for nomadic peoples living in tents or other temporary shelters than for societies with maximum-security prisons is what kind of reasoning?
the fact that having capital punishment "on the table" causes many people to confess to crimes in order to have death "taken off the table" is what kind of ethical reasoning?
because human interests in a livable environment often compete with other human economic interests, many find cost-benefit analyses useful for judging, weighing, & comparing benefits & costs.
the essence of the view known as deep ecology is that organisms depend on their environment in many ways.
cost benefit analyses involve both assessments and evaluations.
anthropocentrists value nature for its own sake.
some ecofeminists believe that the source of our environment problem lies in our being governed in our relation to nature by the male type of dominance over it.
to say that a wilderness has prima facie value means that it must be preserved no matter what the cost to do so.
deep ecologists and ecofeminists share common views about the proper way to regard nature and the source of our environmental problems.
the old native american saying, "before you act, consider the consequences on the next 7 generations," represents what kind of thinking?
in deep ecology, through what means is happiness gained?
through the performance of quiet, real work.
the word environment comes from an old french word meaning
turning around in
according to anthropocentrism, what has intrinsic value?
how, in aldo leopold's ethics, are right actions to be distinguished from wrong ones?
right actions tend to preserve the stability & beauty of nature; wrong actions tend to do otherwise.
ecocentrism relies on what form of moral reasoning?
ecocentrists are distinguished by their rejection of the anthropocentric idea that __________.
only humans have intrinsic value
the article by william baxter utilized primarily _________ reasoning.
a biocentrist believes that intrinsic value is not limited to humans
a biocentrist/ecocentrist believe?
what does it mean for ecocentrists to regard a tree or a fish as a moral patient?
it means that we must care for these life forms for their own sake, and not just for the sake of how it might ultimately impact us.
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