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Sociology - Chapter 5 Vocab
Terms in this set (28)
a social status acquired through an individual's own actions.
a social status into which individuals are assigned without regard for their actions, desires, or abilities.
times and places when the people a person wishes to impress favorably are not present.
when one person or group forces its will on another, based on the threat of physical force or violence.
conflict but the interaction is governed by rules limiting the conflict and achieving the main goal of individual success is more important than defeating or subduing opponents.
the opposite of cooperation. It is the struggle for a limited resource having value to different participants and often requiring the defeat or subdual of others to achieve the goal.
interaction among people or groups in which they act together to achieve a common goal which might not be achievable acting alone.
defining the situation
the social process through which the statuses and roles appropriate to a situation are identified.
a type of work activity requiring the worker to display particular emotions in the normal course of providing a service.
occasions or encounters in which people are in the presence others whom they would like to impress favorably (an "audience").
to refer to strategies people use to convey a favorable impression or favorable self image to other people.
any social status formally defined as irrelevant to a situation and which should have no bearing on interaction.
the social status that defines or structures the role set for a particular situation.
a social structure determined by the interactions through which people propose, discuss, and often settle on a shared definition of the situation providing meaning for actions.
norm of reciprocity
asserts that if you give someone something, you expect them to give you something of equal value in return.
a region around them within which they like to maintain control.
a set of expectations for anyone occupying a particular social status.
occurs when different roles have incompatible expectations for the individual holding both of those roles.
all roles associated with a particular social status.
discomfort or difficulty on the part of an individual due to the difficulty of meeting the conflicting expectations of a single role.
an assumption that, once having been made, leads to the predicted event occurring.
social construction of reality
the process by which people define reality, influenced by interactions with others as well as their own life experiences and assumptions.
when the actions of two or more people toward one another are influenced by positive or negative rewards or sanctions they anticipate receiving from the interaction.
the process through which people affect one another through actions, interpretations of actions, and responses to actions.
a socially recognized position in a social system.
the regular patterns of social interaction and persistent social relationships, expectations attached to positions and relationships, the distribution of people among social positions, and the distribution of social rewards.
the relative ranking or social prestige associated with the individual.
generalizations about a category of people asserting they have a particular set of characteristics and not taking into account their individual differences.
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