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88 terms

Ch 8 The digestive system

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an/o
anus
cec/o
cecum
chol/e
gall or bile
col/o
colon
enter/o
small intestine
esophag/o
esophagus
gastr/o
stomach
hepat/o
liver
cholecyst/o
gallbladder
-lithiasis
the formation of stones in an internal organ
pancreat/o
pancreas
-pepsia
digestion
proct/o
rectum, anus
rect/o
rectum
sigmoid/o
sigmoid colon
achlorhydria
A condition in which hydrochloric acid is absent in the stomach.
aerophagia
the excessive swallowing of air while eating or drinking, and is a common cause of gas in the stomach
amebic dysentery
frequent, watery stools often with blood and mucus accompanied by pain, fever, and dehydration
anastomosis
Surgical joining of two ducts, vessels, or bowel segments to allow flow from one to another
anoplasty
surgical repair of the anus
anorexia
eating disorder brought about by an extreme pursuit of thinness characterized by self-starvation and excessive weight loss
anoscopy
visual examination of the anus
aphthous ulcers
grey-white pits with a red border in the soft tissues lining the mouth; also known as canker sores or mouth ulcers
bilirubin
an orange-yellow pigment in the bile that forms as a product of hemoglobin
borborygmus
the rumbling noise caused by the movement of gas in the intestine.
botulism
food poisoning characterized by paralysis and often death; caused by the bacterium Clostridium botulinum
bruxism
grinding of the teeth
bulimia
repeated binge eating, usually followed by vomiting
cholecystalgia
pain in the gall bladder
cholecystectomy
surgical removal of the gallbladder
cholecystitis
inflammation of the gall bladder
choledocholithotomy
incision into the common bile duct to remove a stone
cholelithiasis
the presence of gallstones in the gallbladder
cholera
an acute intestinal infection caused by ingestion of contaminated water or food
cirrhosis
chronic degenerative disease of the liver
colitis
inflammation of the colon
colonoscopy
visual examination of the colon
colostomy
a surgical operation that creates an opening from the colon to the surface of the body to function as an anus
diverticulectomy
the surgical removal of a diverticulum
diverticulitis
inflammation of a diverticulum in the digestive tract (especially the colon)
duodenal ulcers
Ulcers of the small intestine caused by an excessive secretion of hydrochloric acid and Helicobacter pylori infection.
dyspepsia
a disorder of digestive function characterized by discomfort or heartburn or nausea
dysphagia
difficulty in swallowing
emesis
vomiting
emetic
a medicine that induces nausea and vomiting
enteritis
inflammation of the intestine (especially the small intestine)
eructation
gas expelled from the stomach through the mouth
esophageal reflux
A condition in which stomach contents move backward into the esophagus, i.e., heartburn.
esophagoplasty
surgical repair of the esophagus
gastroduodenostomy
removal of part of the stomach and creation of a new opening between the stomach and the duodenum
gastroenteritis
inflammation of stomach and small intestine
gastrorrhagia
bleeding from the stomach
gastrorrhea
excessive secretion of gastric juice or mucus in the stomach
gastrorrhexis
A tear or bursting of the stomach.
gastrostomy
creation of an artificial opening into the stomach
gingivectomy
surgical removal of gum tissue
hematemesis
vomiting blood
hemoccult
test to detect blood in feces
hemorrhoidectomy
surgical procedure for tying hemorrhoids and excising them
hepatitis
inflammation of the liver caused by a virus or a toxin
hepatomegaly
abnormal enlargement of the liver
hepatorrhapy
suturing of liver
hepatorrhexis
rupture of the liver
hepatotomy
surgical incision into the liver
herpes labialis
blister-like sores on the lips and adjacent facial tissue; also known as cold sores or fever blisters
hiatal hernia
hernia resulting from the protrusion of part of the stomach through the diaphragm
hyperemesis
severe and excessive vomiting
ileectomy
the surgical removal of the ileum
ileitis
inflammation of the lower portion of the small intestine
ileocecal
valve between the small intestine and large intestine
ileostomy
creation of a new opening through the abdominal wall into the ileum
ileus
obstruction of the intestine, often caused by failure of peristalsis
inguinal hernia
protrusion of a loop of the intestine through layers of the abdominal wall in the inguinal region
intussusception
telescoping of a segment of the intestine
jaundice
yellowing of the skin and the whites of the eyes caused by an accumulation of bile pigment (bilirubin) in the blood
maxillofacial
pertaining to the maxilla and the face
melena
abnormally dark tarry feces containing blood (usually from gastrointestinal bleeding)
nasogastric intubation
insertion of a tube through the nose into the stomach
orthodontist
a dentist specializing in the prevention or correction of irregularities of the teeth
periodontitis
a disease that attacks the gum and bone and around the teeth
peristalsis
the process of wave-like muscle contractions of the alimentary tract that moves food along
pica
compulsive eating of nonnutritive substances such as clay or ice
proctoplasty
surgical repair of the rectum
pyrosis
heartburn
regurgitation
the reflex act of ejecting the contents of the stomach through the mouth
salmonella
enteric bacteria, causes typhoid fever and gastroenteritis, most common food born illness
sigmoidoscopy
visual examination of the lower third of the colon in a search for polyps
volvulus
twisting of the bowel on itself, causing obstruction