Terms in this set (72)
prediction made on the basis of limited evidence as a starting point for further investigation.
the experimental factor that is manipulated or changed by the scientist ; the variable whose effect is being studied. Placed on x- axis of graph
the outcome factor that is observed/measured; the variable that may change in response to manipulations of the independent variable. Placed on y-axis of graph
the variables in an experiment which are held constant to test the effect of the independent variable upon the dependent variable
in an experiment, the group that is not exposed to the treatment; contrasts with the experimental group and serves as a comparison for evaluating the effect of the treatment.
CHNOPS (carbon, hydrogen, nitrogen, oxygen, phosphorus, sulfur)
the six primary elements used by living organisms
a very large organic (carbon based) macromolecule composed of many smaller molecules (monomers)
small unit that can join together with other small units to form polymers (macromolecules)
Carbohydrates, lipids, proteins, nucleic acids
the 4 classes or groups of biomolecules (macromolecules) in living organisms
Monosaccharides (simple sugars i.e. glucose)
monomers (building blocks) of carbohydrates
Glycerol and fatty acids
building blocks of lipids (fats)
monomers (building blocks) of proteins
monomer (building block) of nucleic acids made up of a 5-carbon sugar, a phosphate group, and a nitrogenous base
examples are sugars, starches, glycogen, and cellulose. Primary use is immediate energy source and structural components for living organisms
examples are structural components, enzymes, antibodies, hormones. Primary use is to build and maintain cells and tissues in living organisms
examples are fats, steroids, cholesterol, phospholipids, structural components. Primary use is for structure and stored energy for living organisms
examples are DNA, RNA, and ATP. Primary use is to store genetic information, transfer of genetic information to make proteins and as the energy molecule for for living organisms
Carbon, hydrogen, oxygen
elements in carbohydrates and lipids
Carbon, hydrogen, oxygen, nitrogen
elements in proteins
Carbon, hydrogen, oxygen, nitrogen, phosphorus
elements in nucleic acids
Glycerol and fatty acids
Building Blocks of Lipids
Building block of nucleic acids
Carbohydrates, lipids, proteins, nucleic acids
What are the 4 classes or groups of macromolecules (biomolecules)?
Examples of this macromolecule are DNA, RNA and ATP. Primary use is to store genetic information, transfer genetic information to make proteins and as the energy molecule for living organisms
Examples of this macromolecule are sugars, starches, glycogen and cellulose. Primary use is for immediate energy, stored energy, and structural components for living organisms.
Examples of this marcromoecule are fats, steroids, and phospholipids. Primary used for structural components and stored energy for living organisms.
Building blocks of proteins
Examples of this macromolecule are enzymes, antibodies and hormones. Primary use is to build and maintain cells and tissues in living organisms
The building blocks of polysaccharides (carbohydrates)
A weak attraction due to positive and negative electrical charges between a hydrogen atom in one water molecule to the oxygen atom in another water molecule
A property of water that allows polar molecules to be dissolved providing chemicals, nutrients, and minerals for living organisms
High specific heat
A property of water. Water can absorb lots of heat before changing temperature. Water covers around 70% of the Earth's surface and makes up 70% of our body and this property of water plays a very important role as it is able to absorb a lot of heat without a significant rise in the temperature.
Scale with values from 0 to 14, used to measure the concentration of H+ ions in a solution; a pH of 0 to 6 is acidic, a pH of 7 is neutral, and a pH of 8 to 14 is basic
pH importance to life
pH is important because substances such as our stomach acids tend to be at a certain pH in order to work properly. pH is also important because it must be at certain levels in order for living organisms to survive.
Proteins that act as biological catalysts; speed up chemical reactions that take place in cells
A specific reactant acted upon by an enzyme
Region of an enzyme that binds to the substrate
An enzyme which no longer functions because its shape has been changed.
pH and temperature
What are two main things that affect the shape of an enzyme?
Enzyme works by (three steps)
Binding the substrate, catalyzing the reaction, and releasing the products.
A part of the cell containing DNA and RNA in eukaryotes
A complex molecule containing the genetic information that makes up the chromosomes.
Site of protein synthesis in the cell
An organelle found in large numbers in most cells, in which the biochemical processes of respiration and ATP energy production occur.
Organelle found in cells of plants and some other organisms that captures the energy from sunlight and converts it into chemical energy (glucose)
Basic unit of life
DNA is replicated in this phase of Cell Cycle
Cell division (mitosis + cytokinesis)
The process in growth and repair by which a cell divides to form 2 identical daughter cells. Responsible for growth and repair of cells/organism
Cell membrane (plasma membrane)
Phospholipid bilayer and membrane spanning proteins that surrounds all cells and regulates what enters and leaves the cell (semi-permeable)
Requires NO energy, Movement of molecules from high to low concentration, Moves with the concentration gradient
Energy-requiring process that moves material across a cell membrane against a concentration difference (low to high concentration)
Process by which organisms maintain a relatively stable internal environment
Solute concentration is greater than that inside the cell; cell loses water and shrinks
Solute concentration is less than that inside the cell; cell gains water and swells
Negative feedback loop
A feedback loop in which a system responds to a change by returning to its original state, or by decreasing the rate at which the change is occurring. (stabilizing)
Positive feedback loop
a feedback loop in which change in a system is amplified
Examples of positive feedback
Blood clot formation (amplifies chemicals in the clot promote further clotting UNTIL it's sealed)
Milk production (as long as baby is nursing. milk will be produced UNTIL babies done)
Uterine contractions during childbirth (contraction UNTIL babies out/no more stimulus)
Examples of negative feedback
body temperature, blood pressure, glucose regulation
Diffusion of water through a selectively permeable membrane
Type of asexual reproduction in which an organism that does not have a nucleus replicates its DNA and divides in half, producing two daughter cells (example-bacteria)
a disease that prevents the body from converting food into energy. Patient cannot control blood sugar level without medications and diet changes.
A hormone secreted by the pancreatic alpha cells that increases blood glucose concentration by causing the breakdown of stored glycogen into glucose.
A protein hormone synthesized in the pancreatic beta cells that regulates blood sugar levels by facilitating the uptake of glucose into tissues
Damage to the heart, blood vessels, kidneys, eyes and nervous system, infection
Photosynthesis and Cell respiration
The two processes that are needed to convert the sun's light energy into glucose and then into ATP chemical energy which the cells use as their energy source.
Carbon dioxide, water, glucose, and oxygen
4 substances recycled during photosynthesis and cell respiration
The process in cells in which oxygen is used to release stored energy by breaking down sugar molecules into ATP
Process used for conversion of light energy from the sun into chemical energy (glucose)
(adenosine triphosphate) main energy source in all living organisms that cells use for most of their work
Respiration that requires oxygen
Respiration that does not require oxygen
Consists of glands that control many of the body's activities by producing hormones.