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The Second Great Awakening

This was the second religious revival in the United States in which masses of people would gather to pray and many souls were "saved". The Methodists and Baptists became the most abundant religion from heavy recruiting. The Second Great Awakening renewed religion as the center of American culture and redefined American religions much as it had done a hundred years previous by reaching out to the masses.

Victorian morality

set of values that espouse sexual restraint, low tolerance of crime and a strict social code of conduct

Fredrick Douglas

Fredrick Douglas was born a slave but escaped and became an energetic abolitionist. Through his narrative book he exposed the true horrors of slavery.

Jeremy Bentham

English jurist, philosopher, and social reformer (1748-1832) who influenced the development of liberalism and utilitarianism. Bentham fought for the separation of church and state, equal rights for women, animal rights, an end to slavery, and free trade. He influenced James Mill, John Stuart Mill, and Robert Owen.

Elijah Lovejoy

He was the editor of an abolitionist newspaper in Alton, Illinois and was victimized repeatedly and finally killed when he tried to defend his press from attack.

Oregon Trail

A historical overland route to the western United States extending from various cities on the Missouri River to the Oregon Country and later Oregon Territory. The trail was opened in 1842, and by 1845 more than 3,000 migrants had made the arduous journey. After the coming of the railroad, the trail fell into disuse and was finally abandoned in the 1870s.

Stephen Austin

Original settler of Texas, granted land from Mexico on condition of no slaves, convert to Roman Catholic, and learn Spanish; state's capital named for him.


Mission in San Antonio where in 1836 Mexican forces under Santa Anna besieged and massacred American rebels who were fighting to make Texas independent of Mexico

Sam Houston

Politician and military leader who fought to gain independence for Texas from Mexico and to make it a part of the United States; first President of the Republic of Texas; commander of the Texas army at the Battle of San Jacinto; former governor of Tennessee

Battle of San Jacinto

(1836) Final battle of the Texas Revolution; resulted in the defeat of the Mexican army and independence for Texas

William Henry Harrison

was an American military leader, politician, the ninth President of the United States, and the first President to die in office. His death created a brief constitutional crisis, but ultimately resolved many questions about presidential succession left unanswered by the Constitution until passage of the 25th Amendment. Led US forces in the Battle of Tippecanoe.

John Tyler

Vice-president under Harrison brought in to gain support of the South. His presidency was responsible for the veto against another Bank of the U.S and settled the Texas and Maine disputes in the country

James k. Polk

Polk was a slave owning southerner dedicated to Democratic party. In 1844, he was a "dark horse" candidate for president, and he won the election. Polk favored American expansion, especially advocating the annexation of Texas, California, and Oregon. He was a friend and follower of Andrew Jackson. He opposed Clay's American System, instead advocating lower tariff, separation the treasury and the federal government from the banking system. He was a nationalist who believed in Manifest Destiny.

Mexican War

after disputes over Texas lands that were settled by Mexicans the United States declared war on Mexico in 1846 and by treaty in 1848 took Texas and California and Arizona and New Mexico and Nevada and Utah and part of Colorado and paid Mexico $15,000,000

Winfield Scott

was a United States Army general, diplomat, and presidential candidate. Known as "Old Fuss and Feathers" and the "Grand Old Man of the Army", he served on active duty as a general longer than any other man in American history and most historians rate him the ablest American commander of his time. Over the course of his fifty-year career, he commanded forces in the War of 1812, the Mexican-American War, the Black Hawk War, the Second Seminole War, and, briefly, the American Civil War, conceiving the Union strategy known as the Anaconda Plan that would be used to defeat the Confederacy.

Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo

February 2 1848. The agreement between President Polk and the new Mexican government for Mexico to cede California and New Mexico to the US and acknowledge the Rio Grand as the boundary of Texas. In return, the US promised to assume any financial claims its new citizens had against Mexico and to pay the Mexicans $15 million.

Wilmont Proviso

bill that would ban slavery in the territories acquired after the war with mexico (opposed by the south)

Free Soil Party

Political party organized by northerners taking the approach of free soiler; slavery should not be extended into the land of the Mexican Cession. martin van buren was their presidential candidate in 1848. "free soil, free labor, free men".

Zachary Taylor

Whig president who was a Southern slave holder, and war hero (mexican-american war). won the 1848 election. surprisingly did not address the issue of slavery at all on his platform. he died during his term and his vice president was millard fillmore.

Millard Fillmore

was the 13th President of the United States, serving from 1850 until 1853, and the last member of the Whig Party to hold that office. Being Zachary Taylor`s Vice President, he assumed the presidency after Taylor`s death.

Compromise of 1850

Forestalled the Civil War by instating the Fugitive Slave Act , banning slave trade in DC, admitting California as a free state, splitting up the Texas territory, and instating popular sovereignty in the Mexican Cession

Fugitive Slave Act

part of the Compromise of 1850; a law that made it a crime to help runaway slaves; allowed for the arrest of escaped slaves in areas where slavery was illegal and required their return to slaveholders. resisted by Nortrherners

Stephen Douglas

an Illinois statesman who ran against Lincoln, Bell, and Breckenridge in the 1860 presidential election on a popular sovereignty platform for slavery, Douglas also authored the Kansas-Nebraska Act, which repealed the Missouri Compromise and heightened the slavery debate

Kansas Nebraska Act

created the territories of Kansas and Nebraska, opened new lands, repealed the Missouri Compromise of 1820, and allowed settlers in those territories to determine if they would allow slavery within their boundaries.

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