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an electrical event occurring when a stimulus of sufficient intensity is applied to a neuron or muscle cell, allowing sodium ions to move into the cell and reverse the polarity.
respiration in which oxygen is consumed and glucose is broken down entirely; water, carbon dioxide, and large amounts of ATP are the final products.
(of a response) having a strength independent of the strength of the stimulus that caused it.
a form of respiration that does not require oxygen. (using electron acceptors other than oxygen)
a reduction in size or wasting away of an organ or cell resulting from disease or lack of use.
high energy molecule C4H10O5N3P, found in muscle fibers but not other cell types. formed by the enzymatic interaction of an organic phosphate and creatine, the breakdown of which provides energy for muscle contraction.
the body's ability to continue using muscular strength and endure repeated contractions for an extended period of time, types of exercise, such as participating in an aerobics class, jogging or biking, result in stronger, more flexible muscles with greater resistance to fatigue
muscles acting to immobilize a joint or a bone; fixes the origin of a muscle so that muscle action can be exerted at the insertion.
smooth muscle, a muscle that contracts without conscious control and found in walls of internal organs such as stomach and intestine and bladder and blood vessels (excluding the heart)
sustained partial contraction of a muscle in response to stretch receptor inputs; keeps the muscle healthy and ready to react.
: the region where a motor neuron comes into close contact with a skeletal muscle cell.
chemical released by neurons that may, upon binding to receptors of neurons or effector cells, stimulate or inhibit them.
the volume of oxygen required after exercise to oxidize the lactic acid formed during exercise.
muscle consisting of spindle-shaped, unstriped (nonstriated) muscle cells; involuntary muscle.
up and down movement that includes lifting the foot so that its superior surface approaches the shin (standing on your heels).
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