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Anatomy Vocab Chapter 6

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Actin
a contractile protein
Action Potential
an electrical event occurring when a stimulus of sufficient intensity is applied to a neuron or muscle cell, allowing sodium ions to move into the cell and reverse the polarity.
Aerobic respiration
respiration in which oxygen is consumed and glucose is broken down entirely; water, carbon dioxide, and large amounts of ATP are the final products.
All-or-None-
(of a response) having a strength independent of the strength of the stimulus that caused it.
Anaerobic respiration
a form of respiration that does not require oxygen. (using electron acceptors other than oxygen)
Antagonist
muscles that act in opposition to an agonist or prime mover.
Aponeurosis
fibrous or membranous sheet connecting a muscle and the part it moves.
Atrophy
a reduction in size or wasting away of an organ or cell resulting from disease or lack of use.
Cardiac muscle
specialized muscle of the heart.
Creatine phosphate
high energy molecule C4H10O5N3P, found in muscle fibers but not other cell types. formed by the enzymatic interaction of an organic phosphate and creatine, the breakdown of which provides energy for muscle contraction.
Endomysium
the thin connective tissue surrounding each muscle cell.
Endurance
the body's ability to continue using muscular strength and endure repeated contractions for an extended period of time, types of exercise, such as participating in an aerobics class, jogging or biking, result in stronger, more flexible muscles with greater resistance to fatigue
Epimysium
the sheath of fibrous connective tissue surrounding a muscle.
Fascicle
a bundle of nerve or muscle fibers bound together by connective tissue.
Fixator
muscles acting to immobilize a joint or a bone; fixes the origin of a muscle so that muscle action can be exerted at the insertion.
Flaccid
soft; flabby; relaxed.
Insertion
the movable attachment of a muscle as opposed to its origin.
Involuntary Muscle
smooth muscle, a muscle that contracts without conscious control and found in walls of internal organs such as stomach and intestine and bladder and blood vessels (excluding the heart)
Isometric contraction
contractions of the same length.
Motor Unit
a motor neuron and all the muscle cells it supplies.
Muscle Fiber
muscle cells.
Muscle tone
sustained partial contraction of a muscle in response to stretch receptor inputs; keeps the muscle healthy and ready to react.
Muscle twitch
a single rapid contraction of a muscle followed by relaxation.
Myosin
one of the principal contractile proteins found in muscle.
Neuromuscular junction
: the region where a motor neuron comes into close contact with a skeletal muscle cell.
Neurotransmitter
chemical released by neurons that may, upon binding to receptors of neurons or effector cells, stimulate or inhibit them.
Origin
attachment of a muscle that remains relatively fixed during muscular contraction.
Oxygen deficit
the volume of oxygen required after exercise to oxidize the lactic acid formed during exercise.
Perimysium
the connective tissue enveloping bundles of muscle fibers.
Prime mover
muscle whose contractions are primarily responsible for a particular movement; agonist.
Sarcolemma
the fine transparent tubular sheath that envelops the fibers of skeletal muscles.
Sarcomere
the smallest contractile unit of muscle; extends from one Z disc to the next.
Skeletal muscle
muscle composed of cylindrical multinucleate cells with obvious striations
Smooth Muscle
muscle consisting of spindle-shaped, unstriped (nonstriated) muscle cells; involuntary muscle.
Synaptic cleft
the fluid-filled space at a synapse between neurons.
Synergist
muscles cooperating with another muscle or muscle group to produce a desired movement.
tendon
a cord of dense fibrous tissue attaching a muscle to a bone.
tetanus
the tense, contracted state of a muscle
voluntary muscle
muscle under control of the will; skeletal muscle
abduction
to move away from the midline of the body.
adduction
Movement of a body part toward the median plane
dorsiflexion
up and down movement that includes lifting the foot so that its superior surface approaches the shin (standing on your heels).
eversion
special movement of the foot achieved by turning the sole laterally.
inversion
occurs when a single chromosome undergoes breakage and rearrangement within itself
flexion
bending; the movement that decreases the angle between bones.
Plantar flexion
bending the foot or toes toward the plantar surface
Pronation
the inward rotation of the forearm causing the radius to cross diagonally over the ulna
Rotation
The act or process of turning around a center or an axis
Supination
the outward rotation of the forearm causing palms to face anteriorly.
Circumduction
circular movement of a body part.
Opposition
resistance