Upgrade to remove ads
PATHO EXAM 3 CH 12
Terms in this set (69)
Which of the following actions causes the atrioventricular (AV) valves to close?
Increased intraventricular pressure
The normal delay in conduction through the AV node is essential for:
completing ventricular filling.
Heart block, in which a conduction delay at the AV node results in intermittent missed ventricular contractions, is called:
When stroke volume decreases, which of the following could maintain cardiac output?
Increased heart rate
Cardiac output refers to:
the volume of blood ejected by a ventricle in one
Compensation mechanisms for decreased cardiac output in cases of congestive heart failure include:
increased renin and aldosterone secretions.
Pericarditis causes a reduction in cardiac output as a result of which of the following?
Excess fluid in the pericardial cavity, which decreases ventricular filling
A very rapid heart rate reduces cardiac output because
ventricular filling is reduced
The function of the baroreceptors is to:
signal the cardiovascular control center of changes in systemic blood pressure
Which of the following is a result of increased secretion of epinephrine?
Increased heart rate and force of contraction
Which of the following causes increased heart rate?
Stimulation of the sympathetic nervous system
A compensation for shock would include:
increased heart rate and oliguria.
The cardiac reserve is:
the ability of the heart to increase cardiac output when needed.
Which of the following are predisposing factors to thrombus formation in the circulation?
The most common cause of a myocardial infarction is:
atherosclerosis involving an attached thrombus.
Phlebothrombosis is more likely to cause pulmonary emboli than is thrombophlebitis because:
thrombus forms in a vein and is less firmly attached.
A partial obstruction in a coronary artery will likely cause:
Cigarette smoking is a risk factor in coronary artery disease because smoking:
promotes platelet adhesion.
The basic pathophysiology of myocardial infarction is best described as:
total obstruction of a coronary artery, which causes myocardial necrosis.
The first arteries to branch off the aorta are the:
A modifiable factor that increases the risk for atherosclerosis is:
leading a sedentary lifestyle.
Atherosclerosis in the iliac or femoral arteries is likely to cause which of the following?
Which of the following is most likely to cause left-sided congestive heart failure?
Uncontrolled essential hypertension
The definition of congestive heart failure is:
inability of the heart to pump enough blood to meet the metabolic needs of the body.
Significant signs of right-sided congestive heart failure include:
edematous feet and legs with hepatomegaly.
In an infant, the initial indication of congestive heart failure is often:
The classic early manifestation(s) of left-sided congestive heart failure is/are ____, whereas the early indicator(s) of right-sided failure is/are _______.
shortness of breath on exertion or lying down; swelling of the ankles
Which of the following compensations that develop in patients with congestive heart failure eventually increase the workload of the heart?
In patients with congestive heart failure, ACE inhibitor drugs are useful because they:
reduce renin and aldosterone secretion.
A sign of aortic stenosis is:
a heart murmur
Aortic stenosis means the aortic valve:
cannot fully open during systole.
The initial effect on the heart in cases of rheumatic fever is
acute inflammation in all layers of the heart due to abnormal immune response.
Common signs of rheumatic fever include all of the following EXCEPT:
arthritis, causing deformity of the small joints in the hands and feet.
In a child with acute rheumatic fever, arrhythmias may develop due to the presence of:
Rheumatic heart disease usually manifests in later years as:
cardiac arrhythmias and heart murmurs.
Septic emboli, a common complication of infective endocarditis, are a result of the fact that:
vegetations are loosely attached and fragile.
Which of the following applies to subacute infective endocarditis?
A microbe of low virulence attacks abnormal or damaged heart valves.
Prophylactic antibacterial drugs such as amoxicillin are given to patients with certain congenital heart defects or damaged heart valves immediately before invasive procedures to prevent:
Pericarditis may be caused by:
1, 2, 3, 4
A friction rub is associated with:
Shock is defined as:
decreased circulating blood and tissue perfusion.
Shock follows a myocardial infarction when:
a large portion of the myocardium is damaged.
What are the early signs of circulatory shock?
Why does anaphylactic shock cause severe hypoxia very quickly?
Bronchoconstriction and bronchial edema reduce airflow.
Neurogenic (vasogenic) shock results from systemic vasodilation due to:
increased capacity of the vascular system and reduced venous return.
A prolonged period of shock is likely to cause:
damage to, and increased permeability of, pulmonary capillaries.
What would indicate decompensated acidosis related to shock?
Serum pH below normal range
With shock, anaerobic cell metabolism and decreased renal blood flow cause:
Shock develops in patients with severe burns as a result of:
pain and loss of plasma.
Septic shock differs from hypovolemic shock in that it is frequently manifested by:
fever and flushed face.
Septic shock is frequently caused by infections involving:
gram-negative endotoxin-producing bacteria.
In the period immediately following a myocardial infarction, the manifestations of pallor and diaphoresis, rapid pulse, and anxiety result from:
onset of circulatory shock.
The basic pathophysiological change associated with essential hypertension is:
increased systemic vasoconstriction.
Uncontrolled hypertension is most likely to cause ischemia and loss of function in the:
kidneys, brain, and retinas of the eye.
When is a diagnosis of essential hypertension likely to be considered in young or middle-aged individuals?
Blood pressure remains consistently above 140/90
The cause of essential hypertension is considered to be:
A cardiac pacemaker would most likely be inserted in cases of:
Confirmation of the diagnosis of a myocardial infarction would include:
What is the primary reason for amputation of gangrenous toes or feet in patients with peripheral vascular disease?
It prevents spread of infection and reduces pain.
More extensive permanent damage is likely when a myocardial infarction is caused by:
When comparing angina with myocardial infarction (MI), which statement is true?
Angina pain is relieved by rest and intake of nitroglycerin; the pain of MI is not.
Typical early signs or symptoms of myocardial infarction include:
persistent chest pain radiating to the left arm, pallor, and rapid, weak pulse.
Which of the following confirms the presence of a myocardial infarction?
Serum isoenzymes released from necrotic cells and an ECG
The size of the necrotic area resulting from myocardial infarction may be minimized by all of the following EXCEPT:
removing the predisposing factors to atheroma development
The most common cause of death immediately following a myocardial infarction is:
cardiac arrhythmias and fibrillation.
Paroxysmal nocturnal dyspnea is marked by:
hemoptysis and rales.
Which statement applies to paroxysmal nocturnal dyspnea?
It is caused by increased blood in the lungs when lying in a supine position.
Varicose ulcers may develop and be slow to heal because:
edema reduces arterial blood supply to the area.
Endocardiogram - abnormal vs normal Echocardiogram is used to describe
Types of dysrhythmia
Exercise think it box
THINGS TO FIND AND REVIEW
YOU MIGHT ALSO LIKE...
Pathophysiology Exam 6
Chapter 18 JONES
OTHER SETS BY THIS CREATOR
NM 424 CH. 27-29
Maternal Newborn Practice 2019 A
NM 236 EXAM 4 CH. 58/59