Rome took advantage of Carthage's weakness, and seized the Carthaginian territories of Sardinia and Corsica in violation of the peace treaty. Then in 219 BC, Carthaginian General Hannibal conquered the pro-Roman Iberian (present-day Spain) city of Saguntum. Hannibal then surprised the Romans by marching is army verland from Iberia (present day Spain) to cross the Alps (with elephants) and invade Roman Italy, reinforced by Gallic allies. Hannibal was extremely successful during the first few years of the war, with crushing victories over Rome at Trebia (218), on the shores of Lake Trasimene (217), and in southern Italy (216), when the Carthaginian troops annihilated the largest army the Romans had ever assembled. 40% of Rome's Italian allies defected to Carthage.
Then the tide turned; the Carthaginian navy attempted to capture Roman Sicily and Sardinia, but were driven off. The Romans adopted the "Fabian strategy"—avoiding land battles against Hannibal (who was extremely successful in that setting) and instead defeating his allies and the other Carthaginian generals instead, who were nowhere near as skilled as Hannibal was. In this way, Rome was able to recapture all the great cities that had joined Carthage, and defeated a Carthaginian attempt in 207 to reinforce Hannibal at Metaurus.
In 209, Roman General Publius Cornelius Scipio was able to capture Carthage's capital city in Iberia (Carthago Nova). This was devastating for the Carthaginians, because Iberia was a major source of silver and manpower for Carthage. Scipio then destroyed the Carthaginian army at Ilipa in 206, permanently ending Carthaginian rule in Iberia. He invaded Carthaginian Africa in 204, defeating the Carthaginians at Utica and the Great Planes. The Carthaginian Senate, anxious to defend its home turf, recalled Hannibal's army from Italy—thus freeing Rome to control Italy. The final battle between Scipio and Hannibal took place at Zama in Africa in 202, and resulted in Hannibal's defeat. Even harsher peace conditions were placed on Carthage this time (a so-called "Carthaginian Peace") and Carthage became a Roman client state.
Response of Romans to the slave revolt was at first hampered because the Romans were fighting a revolt in Spain, plus the Third Mithridatic War. Eventually, after the slaves had several victories, Marcus Licinius Crassus was put in charge of 40,000 Roman soldiers to suppress the rebellion, which he did, brutally, in 71 BC, along with troops led by Pompey the Great. Even though Crassus was responsible for the victory, Pompeywas able to enter Rome first and claim credit for it. Crassus crucified 6,000 survivors of the revolt, lining the Appian Way from Rome to Capua; Pompey crucified an additional 5,000 survivors. Part of Caesar's civil war, a 4 year war which began as a series of confrontations between his political supporters (the Populares) and his legions, against Pompey and his supporters, the Optimates, who were the politically conservative and socially traditionalist faction of the Roman Senate.
Caesar was praetor (or a commander of the army) in Hispania. From there, in 49 BC, in the Roman Senate demanded that he return (without his troops) to Rome, likely to face charges based on his earlier military campaigns in Gaul (present-day France). Instead, Caesar "crossed the Rubicon" river, marched on Rome (much as Sulla did earlier) and began a civil war against Pompey.
Pompey would flee to Greece and then eventually to Egypt, where he would be killed by Cleopatra's brother, Ptomley.
last pharaoh of Egypt; reigned from 51-30 BC); had relationships with Julius Caesar and Marc Antony.
She was engaged in a civil war with her brother, over the Egyptian throne, when Caesar was fighting his civil war against Pompey. When Pompey fled to Egypt, he was killed by Ptolemy, Cleopatra's brother, who expected Julius Caesar to reward him. However, Julius Caesar found the assassination to be unseemly and inappropriate, and instead gave his support to (and entered into a relationship with) Cleopatra.
Cleopatra would be the last pharaoh of Egypt before it became a Roman province. Cleopatra was actually of Greek, not Egyptian, descent, as the Ptolemys had reigned since Alexander the Great had conquered Egypt. However, unlike previous pharaohs, she did speak Egyptian, as well as Greek and Latin.