Social Studies for Ava

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Rome took advantage of Carthage's weakness, and seized the Carthaginian territories of Sardinia and Corsica in violation of the peace treaty. Then in 219 BC, Carthaginian General Hannibal conquered the pro-Roman Iberian (present-day Spain) city of Saguntum. Hannibal then surprised the Romans by marching is army verland from Iberia (present day Spain) to cross the Alps (with elephants) and invade Roman Italy, reinforced by Gallic allies. Hannibal was extremely successful during the first few years of the war, with crushing victories over Rome at Trebia (218), on the shores of Lake Trasimene (217), and in southern Italy (216), when the Carthaginian troops annihilated the largest army the Romans had ever assembled. 40% of Rome's Italian allies defected to Carthage.

Then the tide turned; the Carthaginian navy attempted to capture Roman Sicily and Sardinia, but were driven off. The Romans adopted the "Fabian strategy"—avoiding land battles against Hannibal (who was extremely successful in that setting) and instead defeating his allies and the other Carthaginian generals instead, who were nowhere near as skilled as Hannibal was. In this way, Rome was able to recapture all the great cities that had joined Carthage, and defeated a Carthaginian attempt in 207 to reinforce Hannibal at Metaurus.

In 209, Roman General Publius Cornelius Scipio was able to capture Carthage's capital city in Iberia (Carthago Nova). This was devastating for the Carthaginians, because Iberia was a major source of silver and manpower for Carthage. Scipio then destroyed the Carthaginian army at Ilipa in 206, permanently ending Carthaginian rule in Iberia. He invaded Carthaginian Africa in 204, defeating the Carthaginians at Utica and the Great Planes. The Carthaginian Senate, anxious to defend its home turf, recalled Hannibal's army from Italy—thus freeing Rome to control Italy. The final battle between Scipio and Hannibal took place at Zama in Africa in 202, and resulted in Hannibal's defeat. Even harsher peace conditions were placed on Carthage this time (a so-called "Carthaginian Peace") and Carthage became a Roman client state.

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