Technological Resources and Systems (Chapter 2)
Terms in this set (23)
What is a technological resource?
A resource is something that has value and that can be used to satisfy human needs and wants. Technological resources are the backbone of engineering and technology. We defined technology as processes humans' uses to develop new products to meet their needs and wants. (2) the products or artifacts actually made. Chapter 1 we defined technology as a human activity. People have been "doing" technology since the beginning time.
List the 7 key technological resources
people, energy, capital, information, tools and machines, materials, and time
Mathematics is critical in engineering. Through math, each technological resource is ___________, _________, ________________, or_______________.
developed, measured, evaluated, or allocated
Technological Resource 1: People: They are involved in every single aspect in Technology.
People are involved in every aspect of technology. People are the most important resource. People are natural problem solvers, and we have technical skills. Human ingenuity is the natural ability of people to solve problems. Ingenuity is the force that drives engineering.
Technological Resource 2: Energy: What is the relationship between energy & work?
Energy is the ability to do work. Work is not a job or someplace you go. Work, is the term engineers use to describe how much force is needed to move some object a specific distance. Energy makes it possible to move things. Example - you do work to when you ride your skateboard and your body needs energy to do the work. Car uses energy to move from location to another. Energy can also provide more than movement, it can provide light, heat, and sound. Example- large factory or concert = 3 forms of energy - light, heat and sound at the same time.
Technological Resource 3: Capital
Capital is a word that describes financial assets such as money, stocks, property, and buildings. Capital allows industry to purchase the technological resources needed to produce a product or create new technology. Large corporations use investment capital to help entrepreneurs start new businesses. Investment capital has become increasingly important.
Technological Resource 4: Information: Why is it so critical to engineering field?
Information has become increasingly important, and technical know-how has always been crucial in manufacturing. Knowledge has exponentially increased and new materials have significantly affected the success rate for new inventions and innovations. Engineers must be current on the latest information about patents, materials, copyright information, market demands, customer preferences, and material/resource supply and availability. A company would not want to invest money and time on a product already patented by another company. The need for current information cuts across many aspects of the engineering field.
Technological Resource 5: Tools and machines:
Tools and machines are a critical part of the story of the human race. Since our beginning, the development of tools and machines has defined each society. Tools are often used to process materials and are a critical resource. The late 1700s saw an explosion on the development of new machines and tools. The steam engine helped spur the Industrial Revolution. This invention was significant because, for the first time in history, people had portable power. Before it was powered by animals or by rivers (using falling water energy)
Technological Resource 6: Materials: What is the difference between Natural and Synthetic materials?
Engineers must know a lot about the characteristics and properties of the materials they use in their designs. Natural or synthetic. Natural materials are those used directly from their natural states such as lumber. We create synthetic materials by changing the state of the raw material. Plastic, which is made from petroleum , is a common example. Good designs must consider many factors, including a material's characteristics (strength vs weight) texture, type of processing required to shape and form the material, and they type of finish it can receive, and must know scientific knowledge about a material's property.
Technological Resource 7: Time:
Time is an important element in each step in the process from design to distribution. Time is key resource; "Time is money". Time is required to design products, develop production processes, train employees, manufacture products, and ship them.
What is a system and subsystem?
System is a set or group of parts that all work together in a systematic, organized way to accomplish a task. All systems include an input, a process, and an output. A subsystem is a system that operates as part of another system. Examples: your body, society with government, legal, and education systems.
What systems are present in the human body?
Nature has many systems, including your body. You circulatory system keeps blood moving through your body. Your respiratory system extracts oxygen from the air. Your digestive system processes the nutrients in food. In each system there is an input signal, some processing function, an output, and often a feedback message to let your body know if the process was successful or not. Some of the systems in your body are so automatic that they function without you even being aware of them.
What are the three technology systems?
Technology systems: communications, production and transportation.
What is an open-loop and closed-loop system?
Open-loop System has no automatic regulatory system. Open-loop requires human action to regulate the system. Example - light switch in your home. Closed-loop system adds an automatic feedback loop to the system. A closed-loop system contains an input, process, output, and a feedback loop that adjusts the system's operation. The purpose of feedback loop is to regulate the system. Thermostat on the heating and cooling system provides a feedback loop and turns the heat or air on/off when the room reaches a certain temperature.(thermostat is a closed loop system) Once the temperature has been set, the system requires not human action. Adding a sensor is another example of a closed loop system - ex conveyor belt or motion sensor lights.
What is communications system?
Communication system transfers information between people and other people or machines. Information can be in the form of words, symbols, or messages. Sometimes we categorize communication systems as either electronic or graphical.
What is the difference between communicating and communication systems?
Two people talking face to face are communicating (if they are listening to each other), but they are not using a technological system. If those same two people are talking on their cellular telephones, then they are communicating by using a communication system. Communication system has to encode, transmit and decode. Ex: PC, printers, & other electrical devices.
What is Production Systems?
Production systems produce physical products efficiently and at the lowest cost possible.
How are production systems subdivided?
We can subdivide production systems into manufacturing and construction depending on whether a product is built off-site or on-site. Manufacturing usually involves making multiple pieces in a plant. Construction typically involves building a single structure on-site. For example, we could manufacture a house in a plant and then deliver it to the site to be set on a foundation. Or we could construct (build) the house on a foundation at the site.
What makes a product successful? What is criteria and constraints
Products are designed to meet a specific human need or want. A product that doesn't satisfy a need or want is not likely to be successful. Products need to research: what consumers want and what they are willing to pay for it. Engineers might have to cut back on different features and options to hold down production costs. If you have researched then you will get investors. Criteria - special requirements a product must have. A constraint is a limit, such as appearance, budget, space, materials, or human capital, in the design process. Constraint could be a manufacturing process that is available, budget, time needed to manufacture the product. Market research will determine, for example, what people would be willing to pay for a new type of phone. The designers might have to cut back on different features and options to hold down production costs.
What is Transportation Systems?
Transportation systems have the ability to move people or goods in an organized and efficient manner. Examples airports, conveyor belts, robotic arms, forklifts, escalators. All are systems because they contain input, processes, outputs and usually feedback loops that are designed to move products as efficiently as possible. continuous
What are the four effects of technological developments?
Four effects are anticipated/positive, anticipated/negative, unanticipated/positive, and unanticipated/negative. Anticipated or unanticipated can be either positive or negative.
What are the effects of Internet on society?
The Internet started as a network that was designed exclusively to allow communications among scientist and between scientists and the military. With the development of HTML (Hypertext markup Language in the early 1990s, the WWW was born. The Internet found new used in entertainment and education - unanticipated positive impact of this development. Cybercrime and other harmful uses of the WWW are unanticipated and negative impacts. This example show that technology is neither good nor bad it is how people use it determines its value.
Who determines which technologies are developed?
Society does. Social customs and religious beliefs influence what products are developed and used by people in a given society. Example Amish society. Stem cell research is being conducted around the world but is debated in the U.S. as to what extent should people be allowed to experiment with or manipulate human cells.