38 terms

Global Wind Patterns & Weather

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Atmospheric pressure
pressure exerted on the surface by the atmosphere
Conduction
The direct transfer of heat from one substance through contact
Convection
The movement of matter due to differences in density that are caused by temp. variations
Wind
The movement of air from an area of high pressure to an area of lower pressure
Insulation
Incoming solar radiation
Coriolis effect
The deflection of a moving body an the surface of Earth to the right in the Northern Hemisphere and to the left in the Southern Hemisphere
Global Wind belts
Atmospheric convection cells on a global scale that moves air 1000s of km
Intertropical convergence zone
The low pressure zone at the equator, where winds from the northern and Southern Hemisphere converge
Horse latitudes
Belts of high air pressure and descending air with little rain located at about about 30 n/s latitudes
Trade winds
Wind that blow diagonally westward toward the equator b/w 30N/S and equator
Prevailing westerlies
Surface wind that flow toward the poles in an easterly direction between about 30-60 N/S latitudes
polar easterlies
surface winds that flow in a westerly direction from the poles to latitudes at about 60 N/S latitudes
polar jet stream
narrow band of high speed winds in the upper atmosphere that occur where the Ferrel Cells meets the polar cells at about 60 N/S
jet stream
a current of fast moving air in the upper atmosphere
polar front
boundary were the cold polar air meets the warmer air of the mid latitudes
subtropical jet stream
narrow band of high speed winds in the upper atmosphere at around 12 km above Earth that occur where Hadley cells meet Ferrel Cells
doldrums
intertropical convergence zone; area of low pressure at the equator
radiation
energy from the Sun
Air mass
a large body of air with similar temperature and moisture characteristics throughout
orographic
mountains push air warm moist air up forming clouds then becoming dry air
front
a narrow zone of transition between air masses
cold front
a cold air mass advances and meets a warm air mass, pushing up the less dense warm air
warm front
warm air mass advances and meets a cold air mass, rising over the denser cold air
stationary front
a cold and warm air mass meet, but neither one has enough force to move the other
occluded front
a faster moving front over takes a slower moving front, trapping the warmer air above both colder masses
water vapor
the invisible gaseous state of water in the atmosphere.
weather
the atmospheric conditions at a particular time, day to day
temperature
the measure of the average motion of molecules
relative humidity
the ratio of amount of water a volume of air holds at a particular temperature compared to how much water the volume of air could hold at a that same temperature
difference in pressure
unequal heating of Earth
warmer at equator and colder at poles
Equator receives more direct sunlight/ at a higher angle where at the pole light is a lower less direct angle
sunlight strikes the Earth
at different angles throughout the year creating seasons
Air rises through circulation
Radiation warms the land faster than water. The land then warms up the air directly above it by conduction (direct contact). The warmer air will then rise and colder air will blow in to replace the rising air creating a convection cell
Coriolis Effect occurs
by the rotation of Earth
formation Polar Jet Stream
cold air of the north meets warmer air of the mid-latitudes
causes to air rising
convection; orographic uplift; fronts; convergence
cloud form
moist air forces air upward to cool and reach dew point where condensation starts
mid-latitude cyclone
a low pressure storm system that rotates counter-clockwise