Philosophy Exam 2
Terms in this set (52)
What is the right thing to do? How do we decide?
Ethical rules are the same for everyone across time and place (timeless rules)
Rules can be discovered by religious text OR universal reason OR universal emotion
Ethical rules vary across time and place (local rules)
People reason differently and have different emotional reactions SO people can't judge other cultures
There are no timeless or local rules, just individual rules
Actions are to be judged right or wrong solely by virtue of their consequences
Happiness and its relation to ethics
•The happiness of each individual concerned counts the same
•The amount of happiness to each will likely not be the same
Believed that reason alone cannot motivate our action, but passions and emotions motivate
Ancient Greek philosopher who believed in ethical virtues
(Aristotle) a trait of character manifested in habitual action that is good for anyone to have
(Aristotle) Possession and exercise of the VIRTUES makes one a good (and HAPPY) person
Virtue as a mean
(Aristotle) A virtue is a middle ground between extremes of "excess" and "deficiency"
How we aquire virtues
•Virtues are not genetically determined, but we are primed to receive them
•Early training is crucial, but one can practice and "fake it until you make it!"
German philosopher who believed having a "good will" or 'motivation to do your duty' is the key to ethics (can't be motivated by desire for happiness)
The categorical imperative
•"Act only on that mixim whereby thou canst at the same time will that it should become a universal law"
•Follow only the rules that you would want all people to follow when in the same scenario (i.e., rules that you would Universalize).
2 formulations of categorical imperative
Treat others how you want to be treated
Don't use people
British philosopher who believed in utilitarianism
The greatest happiness principle
an action which produces the greatest happiness for the greatest number
decide what will produce the greatest happiness
Decide upon rules that will produce the greatest happiness, and then allow those rules to guide your actions
What activities should be illegal? How should society treat those who have violated the law?
How should society's resources, opportunity, burdens, and power be distributed?
American philosopher known as "the most important philosopher of the 20th century"
Veil of Ignorance
"Justice emerges when negotiating without social differentiations"
What kind of society would we ALL establish if we didn't know who we would be
2 principles for a just society
Equality Principle and Difference (Inequality) principle
Each person has an equal right to the most extensive liberty compatible with a like liberty for all.
Difference (Inequality) principle
If inequalities (of respect or goods) exist, they must:
1) be advantageous to everyone
2) attach to positions that are open to all
Nozick's Wilt/Lebron Argument against Rawls' Principle
o 40 people (including LeBron), lasts a couple months, $40,000, Expenses $800/month
o Day 1: everyone has $1,000 - meeting Equality Principle
o Day 2: 20 people go to LeBron's exhibition
o Day 3:
19 people have $1000
20 people have $500
Lebron has $11,000 (1,000 + (500*20))
o Day 30: rent due
20 people evicted, can no longer meet equality principle
Take money from Lebron - limiting Lebron's liberty
Take money from 19 who didn't go - limiting those peoples liberty
Nozick's "Justice in Holdings" criteria
Having more is OK if there was:
Justice in acquisition
Justice in transfer
Rectification of injustice in acquisition or transfer has been done
Liberal vs Libertarian
•Libertarian - Negative freedom (non-interference)
•Liberal - negative freedom (with limits); Positive freedom (flourishing) (welfare needed)
Australian philosopher who believed in global distribution of money
Someone who has absolutely nothing when it comes to money, health, education, and any other level of basic human needs.
(singer)Having a certain amount of income that is more than one needs.
relationship between absolute poverty and absolute affluence
(singer)Those who have absolute affluence have a moral obligation to help those with absolute poverty
How money influences thinking
Positions should go to the most qualified person
An economic system in which "most of the means of production are privately owned and production is guided and income (jobs,too) distributed largely through the operation of markets"
•An economic system that "calls for public rather than private ownership or control of some property and most natural resources..."
•Production and distribution are guided by the market
•Political and economic doctrine that aims to replace private property and profit-based economy with public ownership and communal control of at least the major means of production
•Production and distribution are guided by the government
rule by one
rule by many, the people
rule by the rich and powerful
Milton Friedman's role of business in society
Increase its profits within the limits of the law
Business has no responsibility to "help" society
German philosopher who believed capitalism was "exploitative".
to take away more than you give back
The profit made by the capitalist comes from the fact that workers add value to raw materials - so profit comes from the workers. However, the profit is not shared adequately with the workers
Division of Labor decreases the worker's skills/creativity
Scottish philosopher and economist
Benefits of Capitalism
Capitalism can funnel people's self-interested tendencies for the common good
division of labor
dividing labor increases efficiency and productivity
term economists use to describe the self-regulating nature of the marketplace
having certain comforts in your home will make you "feel like a king"
The Ford Pinto Memo
The cost of fixing the car is more than paying people off, so let people burn and pay their families later