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Terms in this set (52)
Where does gas exchange between air and the Lungs occur?
Distinguish between the conducting portion and respiratory portion of the respiratory tract.
- the conducting portion begins at the nasal cavity and extends through the pharynx, larynx, trachea, bronchi and larger bronchioles
- the respiratory portion includes the smallest, thinnest respiratory bronchioles and air filled alveoli where gas exchange occurs
Define Respiratory Defense System
series of filtration mechanisms for inhaled air that prevent debris or pathogen contamination
What membrane lines the conducting portion of the respiratory tract?
The respiratory mucosa
Why can cystic fibrosis become lethal?
Potentially lethal infections may develop in respiratory passageways and lungs if bacteria colonize to stegnant mucous. This can eventually lead to heart failure associated with massive chronic bacterial infection in the lungs.
List the structures of the upper respiratory system.
Trace the pathway of air through the upper respiratory system.
pathway of air through the upper respiratory system: external nares, then the nasal vestibule(guarded by hairs that screen out large particles), then to the nasal cavity, superior, then middle then inferior meatuses (air bounces off the conchal surfaces), then air moves to the internal nares (the connection between the nasal cavity and nasopharynx, then the oropharynx and finally the larngopharynx
Why is the vascularization of the nasal cavity important?
the rich vascularization of the nasal cavity by the expandable veins in the lamina propria radiates body heat, so inhaled air is warmed before it leaves the nasal cavity. The heat also evaporates moisture from the epithelium to humidify the incoming air.
Identify the paired and unpaired cartilages that compose the larynx.
the paired cartilages are the arytenoid cartilages, corniculate cartilages, and cuneiform cartilages. The unpaired laryngeal cartilages are the thyroid cartilage, circoid cartilage and epiglottis
Describe the structures of the glottis.
made up of the vocal folds and the rima glottidis. the vocal folds contain vocal ligaments and lie inferior to the vestibular folds and are involved with sound production aka the vocal chords. the rima glottis is the opening between the vocal folds and the arytenoid cartenoids
distinguish between pronation and articulation
pronation is the production of sound, and one component of speech.
articulation is the modification of sound by the tongue, teeth and lips for clear speech.
compare the two main bronchi
the right primary bronchus is the larger in diameter than the left primary bronchus, and it descends toward the lung at a steeper angle than the left primary bronchus
what function do the C-shaped tracheal cartilages allow
allow room for the esophagus to expand when food or liquids are swallowed
trace the pathway of airflow along the passageway of the lower respiratory tract
trachea, primary bronchi, secondary bronchi, tertiary bronchi, terminal bronchioles, pulmonary lobule
Define bronchopulmonary circuit
a specific region of a lung supplied by a tertiary bronchus
Describe the location of the lungs within the thoracic cavity
the left and right lungs are surrounded by the left and right pleural cavities, respectively. The apex of each lung extends superiorly to the first rib, and the base of each lung rests on the superior surface of the diaphragm.
Describe the lung borders and landmarks ( and name the lobes and fissures)
the left lung is divided into a superior lobe and an inferior lobe by the oblique fissure; in the right lung, the horizontal fissure separates the superior lobe from the middle lobe, while the oblique fissure separates the superior and middle lobes from the inferior lobe
Define pulmonary lobule
the smallest subdivisions of the lungs- also the branches of the pulmonary arteries, pulmonary veins and tertiary bronchi supply each lobule
what would happen to the alveoli if surfactant were not produced?
without surfactant, the alveoli would collapse due to the high surface tension in the thin layer of water that moistens the alveolar surfaces
Describe the structure and function of the blood air barrier
at the blood air barrier diffusion proceeds quickly due to both short distances and the fact that oxygen and carbon dioxide are lipid soluble. It also has a very large surface area.
Define external respiration, gas diffusion and internal respiration
External respiration is all the processes involved in the exchange of oxygen and carbon dioxide between the blood, lungs and external environment
internal respiration is oxygen absorption from the blood and carbon dioxide release by body tissues
gas diffusion occurs across the blood air barrier between alveolar air spaces and alveolar capillaries as well as across capillary walls between blood and other tissues
how are hypoxia and anoxia different?
hypoxia is low tissue oxygen levels
anoxia is when oxygen is cut off completely
Define boyle's law
states that at a constant temperature, the pressure of a gas is inversely proportional to its volume
what physical changes affect the volume of the lungs?
the movements if the diaphragm and ribcage
what pressures determine the direction of airflow within the respiratory tract
the intrapulmonary pressure (pressure inside the respiratory tract) and the atmospheric pressure (outside the respiratory tract) determine direction of airflow. air moves from high pressure to lower pressure.
Identify the primary inspiratory muscles
diaphragm, and external intercostal muscles
when do the accessory respiratory muscles become active ?
whenever the primary respiratory muscles are unable to move enough air to meet the oxygen demands of tissues
name the various measurable pulmonary volumes
tidal volume, expiratory reserve volume (ERV), residual volume, and inspiratory reserve volume (IRV)
Define respiratory rate
the number of breaths taken each minute
how does the respiratory minute volume differ from alveolar ventilation?
respiratory minute volume is the amount of air moved into and out of the respiratory tract each minute, whereas alveolar ventilation is the amount of air reaching the alveoli each minute. because some of the air never reaches the alveoli but instead remains in the anatomic dead space, alveolar ventilation is lower than respiratory minute volume
which ventilates alveoli more effectively; slow, deep breaths or rapid, shallow breaths... explain
slow deep breaths; because smaller amount of the tidal volume of each breath is spent moving air into and out of the anatomic dead space of the lungs
Define Dalton's law
states that in a mixture of gases, the individual gases exert a pressure proportional to their abundance in the mixture
What is the significance of henry's law to the process of respiration?
states that at a given temp, the amount of a particular gas that dissolves in a liquid is directly proportional to the partial pressure of that gas. henry's law underlies the diffusion of gases between capillaries and alveoli, and between capillaries and interstitial fluid.
explain the decrease in PO2 from the pulmonary venules to the blood arriving in the peripheral capillaries of the systemic circuit.
the PO2 decreases from about 100 mm Hg to 95 in the pulmonary veins is due to mixing with venous blood from the conducting passageways. the blood arriving at the peripheral capillaries has a PO2 of 95 mm Hg.
hemoglobin to which oxygen molecules have bound
explain the relationship among BPG, oxygen and hemoglobin
BPG is a compound that decreases hemoglobins affinity for oxygen. for any partial pressure of oxygen if the concentration of BPG increases, the amount of oxygen released by hemoglobin will increase.
during exercise, hemoglobin releases more oxygen to active skeletal muscle than it does when those muscles are at rest. why?
both increased temp and decreased PH (from heat and acidic wastes generated by active skeletal muscles) cause hemoglobin to release more oxygen during exercise than when the molecules are at rest.
identify three ways that carbon dioxide is transported in the bloodstream
in the bloodstream as bicarbonate ions
bound to hemoglobin
dissolved in the plasma
describe the forces that drive oxygen and carbon dioxide transport between the blood and peripheral tissues
driven by differences in partial pressure, oxygen enters blood at the lungs and leaves it in the peripheral tissues; similar forces drive carbon dioxide into the blood at the tissues and into the alveoli at the lungs
how would blockage of the trachea affect blood PH?
it would interfere with the body's ability to take in oxygen and eliminate carbon dioxide. most carbon dioxide is transported in blood as bicarbonate ions formed from the dissociation of carbonic acid and an inability to eliminate carbon dioxide which results in a buildup of excess hydrogen ions, decreasing blood PH.
define compliance and resistance
compliance is the ease with which the lungs expand and recoil
resistance is an indication of how much force is required to inflate or deflate the lungs
identify 3 chronic obstructive diseases (copds)
asthma, chronic bronchitis, emphysema
compare chronic bronchitis with emphysema
chronic bronchitis is a long term inflammation of the muscous membranes in the bronchial tubes.
emphysema is a condition in which the alveolar surfaces of the lungs are destroyed and alveoli merge, reducing respiratory surface area and oxygen reabsorption, causing breathlessness.
people who have chronic bronchitis are sometimes called "blue bloaters" which those with emphysema are often called 'pink puffers'
which brainstem centers generate the respiratory rate?
the respiratory rhythmicity centers in the medulla oblongata
name the pared central nervous system nuclei that adjust the pace of respiration
the apneustic centers and the pneumotaxic centers in the pons
which chemical factors in blood or csf stimulate the respiratory centers?
Ph, PO2, PCO2
are chemoreceptors more sensitive to blood co2 levels or blood o2 levels
chemoreceptors are more sensitive to co2 levels than they are to o2 levels
define hypercapnia and hypocapnia
hypercapnia is an increase in the pco2 of arterial blood above the normal range
hypocapnia is an abnormally low arterial pco2
johnny is angry, so he tells his mom that he will hold his breath until he turns blue and dies. explain whether this will likely happen
his mom should not worry, when johnny holds his breath co2 levels in his blood will increase, causing increased stimulation of the inspiratory centers, forcing him to breathe again
name several age-related factors that affect the respiratory system
deterioration of elastic tissue, arthritic changes that stiffen rib articulations, decreased flexibility of coastal cartilages, decreased vital capacity and some degree of emphysema
describe lung cancer
aggressive, affects the epithelial cells lining conducting passageways, muscous glands, or alveoli. signs and symptoms usually not present until tumor restricts airflow or compress nerby structures. symptoms include weight loss, cough/wheeze, chest pain and shortness of breath. most cases (85-90)caused by cigarette smoking. surgery, radiation or chemo may be involved
compare dysplasia, metaplasia, neoplasia and anaplasia
dysplasia is the development of abnormal cells
metaplasia is the development of abnormal changes in tissue structure
neoplasia is the conversion of normal cells to cancerous tumor cells
anaplasia is when the malignant cells spread/metastisize throughout the body
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