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Arts and Humanities
Chapter 20 Ap World History SAF MEDS
Terms in this set (75)
The War Front
World War I: a war between the allies (Russia, France, British Empire, Italy, United States, Japan, Rumania, Serbia, Belgium, Greece, Portugal, Montenegro) and the Central Powers (Germany, Austria-Hungary, Turkey, Bulgaria) from 1914 to 1918
a war that is unrestricted in terms of the weapons used, the territory or combatants involved, or the objectives pursued, esp. one in which the laws of war are disregarded.
the process by which a country determines its own statehood and forms its own allegiances and government.
the principle or advocacy of the union of all Slavs or all Slavic peoples in one political organization.
An early-20th-century alliance between Great Britain, France, and Russia.
Germany and its allies (Austria-Hungary, Bulgaria, and the Ottoman Empire) in World War I.
were the countries that opposed the Axis powers during the Second World War (1939-1945). The Allies promoted the alliance as seeking to stop German, Italian and Japanese aggression.
used during the First and Second World Wars to describe the contested armed frontier between lands controlled by Germany to the east and the Allies to the west.
a type of combat in which opposing troops fight from trenches facing each other.
a letter from the United Kingdom's Foreign Secretary Arthur James Balfour to Baron Rothschild, a leader of the British Jewish community, for transmission to the Zionist Federation of Great Britain and Ireland
the civilian population and activities of a nation whose armed forces are engaged in war abroad.
compulsory enlistment for state service, typically into the armed forces.
Treaty of Brest-Litovsk
a peace treaty on March 3, 1918, between the new Bolshevik government of Russia (the Russian Soviet Federated Socialist Republic) and the Central Powers (Germany, Austria-Hungary, Bulgaria, and Turkey), which ended Russia's participation in World War I.
a statement given on the 8th of January, 1918 by United States President Woodrow Wilson declaring that World War I was being fought for a moral cause and calling for postwar peace in Europe.
the making of amends for a wrong one has done, by paying money to or otherwise helping those who have been wronged. or war expenses.
league of nations
international organization formed in 1920 to promote cooperation and peace among nations; although suggested by Woodrow Wilson, the United States never joined and it remained powerless; it was dissolved in 1946 after the United Nations was formed
the process by which a country determines its own statehood and forms its own allegiances and government.
compromise between the Allies' wish to retain the former German and Turkish colonies and their pre-Armistice declaration (November 5, 1918) that annexation of territory was not their aim in the war.
was a Turkish army officer in the Ottoman military, revolutionary statesman, and the first President of Turkey. He is credited with being the founder of the Republic of Turkey; Turkish statesman who abolished the caliphate and founded Turkey as a modern secular state (1881-1938)
Actually, another name for Mustafa Kemal. Turkish army officer!
the cooperation of several countries in an alliance to strengthen the security of each.
Vladimir ilyich ulyanov
Russian founder of the Bolsheviks and leader of the Russian Revolution and first head of the USSR (1870-1924);(1870-1924), the principal figure in the Russian Revolution and first premier of the former Soviet Union 1918-24; born Vladimir Ilich Ulyanov. He was the first political leader to attempt to put Marxist principles into practice; Russian revolutionary leader.
a Russian communist revolutionary, politician and political theorist. He served as the leader of the Russian SFSR from 1917, and then concurrently as Premier of the Soviet Union from 1922, until his death; Russian founder of the Bolsheviks and leader of the Russian Revolution and first head of the USSR (1870-1924) - Lenin is the same guy(Vladimir) but Lenin is a nickname.
what is to be done?
urning Questions of Our Movement, is a political pamphlet written by the Russian revolutionary Vladimir Lenin in 1901 and published in 1902. Its title is inspired by the novel of the same name by the nineteenth-century Russian revolutionary Nikolai Chernyshevsky
the Leninist organizational system in which policy is decided centrally and is binding on all members.
a member of the majority faction of the Russian Social Democratic Party, which was renamed the Communist Party after seizing power in the October Revolution of 1917.
revolution of 1905
uprising that was instrumental in convincing Tsar Nicholas II to attempt the transformation of the Russian government from an autocracy into a constitutional monarchy; was a wave of mass political and social unrest that spread through vast areas of the Russian Empire; Unsuccessful uprising in Russia against the tsarist regime.
the doctrines of Marx as interpreted and put into effect by Lenin in the former Soviet Union and (at first) by Mao Zedong in China.
vanguard of the revolution
vanguardism is a strategy whereby the most class-conscious and politically advanced sections of the proletariat or working class, known as the revolutionary vanguard, form organizations in order to draw larger sections of the working class towards
a legislative body in the ruling assembly of Russia and of some other republics of the former Soviet Union.
an elected local, district, or national council in the former Soviet Union; a citizen of the former Soviet Union;
was a lawyer and major political leader before the Russian Revolutions of 1917 belonging to a moderate socialist party, called Trudoviks; a major political leader before and during the Russian Revolutions of 1917. Kerensky served as the second Prime Minister of the Russian Provisional Government until it was overthrown by the Bolsheviks under Vladimir Lenin in the October Revolution
usually refers to private assets, but may also mean assets owned by lower levels of government, such as municipalities, being transferred to be the state; the process of taking a private industry or private assets into public ownership by a national government or state;
was a common name for the Russian National Military Forces from 1918 to 1946, which was also known by the abbreviation RKKA (Workers' and Peasants' Red Army). The name refers to the color red; the soviet army
Russian Marxist revolutionary and theorist, Soviet politician, and the founder and first leader of the Red Army; Russian revolutionary and Communist theorist who helped Lenin and built up the army; he was ousted from the Communist Party by Stalin and eventually assassinated in Mexico (1879-1940)
New economic policy
was an economic policy of Soviet Russia proposed by Vladimir Lenin, who called it "state capitalism"; a program in effect from 1921 to 1928, reviving the wage system and private ownership of some factories and businesses, and abandoning grain requisitions.
Russian leader who succeeded Lenin as head of the Communist Party and created a totalitarian state by purging all opposition (1879-1953); was the leader of the Soviet Union from the mid-1920s until his death in 1953.
revolution of 1911
was a revolution that overthrew China's last imperial dynasty, the Qing Dynasty, and established the Republic of China;
Chinese revolutionary, first president and founding father of the Republic of China.; Chinese statesman who organized the Kuomintang and led the revolution that overthrew the Manchu dynasty in 1911 and 1912 (1866-1925)
political party founded in 1911 by Sun Yat-sen; it governed China under Chiang Kai-shek from 1928 until 1949 when the Communists took power and subsequently was the official ruling party of Taiwan; the political party founded in 1911 by Sun Yat-sen; it governed China under Chiang Kai-shek from 1928 until 1949 when the Communists took power and subsequently was the official ruling party of Taiwan
was a 20th-century Chinese political and military leader.; Chinese military and political figure; in the Chinese civil war that followed World War II he was defeated by the Chinese communists and in 1949 was forced to withdraw to Taiwan where he served as president of Nationalist China until his death (1897-1975)
commonly referred to as Chairman Mao, was a Chinese Communist revolutionary and the founding father of the People's Republic of China, which he governed; Chinese communist leader (1893-1976)
was a military retreat undertaken by the Red Army of the Communist Party of China, the forerunner of the People's Liberation Army, to evade the pursuit of the Kuomintang (KMT or Chinese Nationalist Party) army.
the economic crisis and period of low business activity in the U.S. and other countries, roughly beginning with the stock-market crash in October, 1929, and continuing through most of the 1930s.
the German republic founded at Weimar in 1919; "The Weimar Republic was overthrown in 1933 and replaced by the Third Reich" ;is the name given by historians to the federal republic and semipresidential representative democracy established in 1919 in Germany to replace the imperial form of government
the theory or practice of shielding a country's domestic industries from foreign competition by taxing imports.
socialism in one country
was a theory put forth by Joseph Stalin in 1924, elaborated by Nikolai Bukharin in 1925 and finally adopted by Stalin as state policy
commonly known by his initials FDR, was an American lawyer and statesman who served as the 32nd President of the United States; 32nd President of the United States; elected four times; instituted New Deal to counter the Great Depression and led country during World War II (1882-1945)
John Maynard Keynes
English economist who advocated the use of government monetary and fiscal policy to maintain full employment without inflation (1883-1946); was a British economist whose ideas have fundamentally affected the theory and practice of modern macroeconomics, and informed the economic policies of governments
was a series of domestic programs enacted in the United States between 1933 and 1938. They involved laws passed by Congress as well as presidential executive orders during the first term of President Franklin D. Roosevelt.
a peasant in Russia wealthy enough to own a farm and hire labor. Emerging after the emancipation of serfs in the 19th century, the kulaks resisted Stalin's forced collectivization, but millions were arrested, exiled, or killed.
an authoritarian and nationalistic right-wing system of government and social organization.
an Italian politician, journalist, and leader of the National Fascist Party, ruling the country as Prime Minister from 1922 until his ousting in 1943; Italian fascist dictator (1883-1945)
National Socialist German Workers' Party: the political party founded in Germany in 1919 and brought to power by Hitler in 1933
Austrian-born German politician and the leader of the Nazi Party. He was chancellor of Germany from 1933 to 1945 and dictator of Nazi Germany from 1934 to 1945; German Nazi dictator during World War II (1889-1945)
an autobiographical manifesto by Nazi leader Adolf Hitler, in which he outlines his political ideology and future plans for Germany. Volume 1 of Mein Kampf was published in 1925 and Volume 2 in 1926;
relating to or denoting a people speaking an Indo-European language who invaded northern India in the 2nd millennium BC, displacing the Dravidian and other aboriginal peoples.
agreement between Britain and Germany in 1938.
- Germany allowed to extend territories into gecho-slovatia where German speaking epople lived
-compromise with germany not to invade, they did anyway
a political policy of conceding to aggression by war like nation
- munich pact conference giving hitler part of czachslavaskia
axis alliance of fasscist italy and nazi germany with particular emphasis on relationship of benito mussolini and Adolf Hitler
Three-Power Pact, Axis Pact, Three-way Pact or Tripartite Treaty was a pact signed in Berlin, Germany on September 27, 1940, which established the Axis Powers of World War II.
led by Nazi Germany. Axis powers definition. Germany, Italy, and Japan, which were allied before and during World War II. (Compare Allies.)
destruction or slaughter on a mass scale, esp. caused by fire or nuclear war;
the deliberate killing of a large group of people, esp. those of a particular ethnic group or nation.
an intense military campaign intended to bring about a swift victory.
Battle of Britain
was one of the defining moments of 1940. With the fall of France in June 1940, Britain was left facing Nazi Germany alone. Hitler could try to force the British to negotiate a peace or prepare his troops to invade.
a lagoon harbor on the island of Oahu, Hawaii, west of Honolulu. Much of the harbor and surrounding lands is a United States Navy deep-water naval base. It is also the headquarters of the United States Pacific Fleet; a harbor on Oahu to the west of Honolulu; location of a United States naval base that was attacked by the Japanese on 7 Dec 1941
the day (June 6, 1944) in World War II on which Allied forces invaded northern France by means of beach landings in Normandy.
Battle of the Bulge
was a major German offensive campaign launched through the densely forested Ardennes region of Wallonia in Belgium, France and Luxembourg on the Western Front toward the end of World War II in Europe.
battle of midway
naval battle of World War II (June 1942); Between 4 and 7 June 1942, only six months after Japan's attack on Pearl Harbor, and one month after the Battle of the Coral Sea, the United States Navy (USN), under Admirals Chester W. Nimitz, Frank Jack Fletcher, and Raymond A. Spruance decisively defeated an attack by the Imperial Japanese Navy (IJN),
British statesman and leader during World War II; received Nobel prize for literature in 1953 (1874-1965); was a British politician who was the Prime Minister of the United Kingdom from 1940 to 1945 and again from 1951 to 1955
five year plan
a government plan for economic development over five years. The first such plan in the Soviet Union was inaugurated in 1928.
travel from one island to another, esp. as a tourist in an area of small islands.
refers to the buying of securities with cash borrowed from a broker, using other securities as collateral. This has the effect of magnifying any profit or loss made on the securities. The securities serve as collateral for the loan.
signed on June 28, 1919, was the peace settlement between Germany and the Allied Powers that officially ended World War I.
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