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Biology Chapter 7: Cells
Terms in this set (86)
smallest living unit
first to observe "small chambers" in cork and call them cells. Used a compound light microscope
Anton van Leeuwenhoek
Discovered that cells were basic unit of life
concluded that all plants are made of cells
Stated that all animals are made of cells
concluded that new cells could be produced only from the division of existing cells
Cell Theory (3 statements)
1. All living things are composed of cells.
2. Cells are the smallest living units of structure in an organism.
3. Cells arise only from pre-existing cells.
microscope that uses a beam of light passing through one or more lenses to magnify an object. Magnify to 1000x
Problems with light microscopy
Make a clear picture
Only magnify to 1000
Adds dyes to samples to make them more visible to a light microscope
microscope that forms an image by focusing beams of electrons onto a specimen. Much higher resolution and can zoom much farther.
transmission electron microscope
used to study the internal structure of cells. Flat 2D images
Scanning Electron Microscope
an electron microscope that generates a three-dimensional image. Samples are put in vacuum first.
structures common to all cells
DNA and Cell membrane
Stores biological information
the semipermeable membrane surrounding the cytoplasm of a cell.
Cells that enclose their DNA in nuclei. Larger and complex cells. (Plants, animals humans)
Cells that do not contain DNA in nuclei. Smaller and simpler than Eukaryotes. (Bacteria cells)
Nucleus is the
control center of the cell
tiny organ-like structures with specialized functions.
surrounds the nucleus. Made of 2 membranes
holes in the nuclear envelope that allow materials to pass in and out of the nucleus
threadlike structures made of DNA molecules that contain the genes
small, dense regions which the assembly of ribosomes begins
large, saclike, membrane-enclosed structures that store materials like water, salts, proteins, and carbohydrates
Vacuoles in plant cells
One large vacuole
vacuoles in animal cells
Multiple small vacuoles
Found in plant cells filled with liquid. Increases rigidity making more possible to support leaves and flowers
pump water out of cell
small membrane enclosed structures that specialize in moving/storing products between organelles and to and from the cell surface
Uses chemicals to break down food and worn out cell parts. Remove "junk" from cells. Most likely found in animal cells
helps the cell maintain its shape and is also involved in movement. Transport materials and are compared to conveyer belts.
Fine, threadlike proteins found in the cell's cytoskeleton made of actin. Disassemble and assemble parts for the cytoplasm.
hollow structures made up of proteins known as tubulins.
They help greatly to maintain cell shape. Form a mitosis spindle which helps separate chromosomes
Cell organelle that aids in cell division in animal cells only
Help to build projections from the cell surface.
Arranged in a 9+2 pattern.
Allow controlled movements
small particles of RNA and protein found throughout the cytoplasm in all cells
Produce proteins by following instructions from DNA.
Each one is like a little "machine" and the "boss" is the DNA
an internal membrane system in which components of cell membrane and some proteins are constructed
An endomembrane system covered with ribosomes where many proteins for transport are modified/assembled.
no ribosomes. Work to detoxify drugs and synthesize lipids in membrane.
Modifies, sorts, and packages proteins and lipids for storage or transport out of the cell
Capture energy from sunlight and use it to produce food for the cell
Surrounded by 2 membranes which contain chlorophyll
power plants of the cell.
Convert stored food into more convenient compounds.
Where do we get our mitochondrias from?
Suggest that chloroplast and mitochondria have descended from independent microorganisms. They contain their own genetic information as small DNA molecules.
strong, supporting layer around the cell membrane in some cells
cell wall function
provides support and protection
What cells have cell walls and which do not?
Prokaryotic cells, fungi, bacteria, and algae all have cell walls. Animals however DO NOT have a cell wall.
cell membrane function
Controls what enters and leaves the cell. Made of double sheet lipid bilayer which makes them flexible.
Lipids are made of
fatty acids and glycerol
Water fearing lipids, that are nonpolar
water loving molecules.
Hydrophobic + hydrophilic
A lipid bilayer with a head and a tail.
model of a cell membrane as a two-dimensional fluid of mixed composition
allows fluids/cells to pass from one tissue to another tissue or location
does not allow any materials through it
selectively permeable membrane
a property of cell membranes that allows some substances to pass through, while others cannot
The process of moving material in and out of cells.
the movement of substances across a cell membrane WITHOUT the use of energy by the cell
movement of molecules from area of high amounts of concentration to areas of low concentration
When is equilibrium reached?
when the concentration of the substance on both sides of the cell is equal.
Movement of specific molecules across cell membranes through protein channels
Diffusion of water through a selectively permeable membrane
channel proteins that allow water to cross the membrane quickly
How does osmosis work?
Water moves across membrane until equilibrium reached
Equal concentration of water on either side of membrane
a solution that is more concentrated than the cell contents
a solution that is less concentrated than the cell contents
the net movement of water out of or into a cell produces a force
effects of osmosis on cells
isotonic: the concentration is the same in and outside of the cell, water molecules move equally in both directions.
Hypertonic: the solution has a higher solute concentration than the cell. A net movement of water molecules out of the cell causes t to shrink.
Hypotonic: the solution has a lower solute concentration than the cell. A net movement of water molecules into the cell causes it to swell.
Energy-requiring process that moves material across a cell membrane against a concentration difference
small proteins or ions that are carried through protein channels that act as 'pumps' (Active transport)
The process by which large particles and macromolecules are transported through the cell membrane. (Active transport)
Endocytosis (Bulk Transport)
Talking material into the cell by folds or pockets of the cell membrane. They then form a vacuole or vesicle.
phagocytosis (bulk transport endocytosis)
Extensions of cytoplasms surround and package material and then engulfs it.
pinocytosis (bulk-phase endocytosis)
Which process is a form of endocytosis in which tiny droplets of extracellular fluid are taken up.
Exocytosis (Bulk Transport)
moving dissolved large molecules out of cell. Forces contents out of the cell.
how cells maintain homeostasis
grow, respond to their environment, transform energy, and reproduce
cells uniquely suited to perform a particular function
Specialized animal cells
Act like street sweepers to keep the particles out of the lungs
specialized plant cells
Are protected with cell walls and have wings to disperse over long distances
A group of similar cells that perform the same function.
A collection of tissues that carry out a specialized function of the body
group of organs that work together to perform a specific function
the connection between neighboring cells; holds cells together
on or in a cell, a specific protein to whose shape fits that of a specific molecular messenger, such as a hormone
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