How can we help?

You can also find more resources in our Help Center.

120 terms

8th Grade CT Science CMT Review

STUDY
PLAY
axis
an imaginary line that passes through Earth's center and its North and South Poles- Week 1 begins
balance
an instrument used to measure mass
boiling point
the temperature at which a substance changes from a liquid to a gas
camouflage
structural adaptation that enables species to blend with their surroundings; allows a species to avoid detection by predators
categorize
To arrange in classes; put with things with same or similar qualities; to classify
climate
the average weather conditions in an area over a long period of time
conduct
to organize and perform an experiment
controlled experiement
an experiment in which all variables except one are kept constant
dependent variable
The experimental factor that is being measured; the variable that may change in response to manipulations of the independent variable
erosion
The process by which wind, water, ice, or gravity transports soil and sediment from one location to another- Week 1 ends
ecosystem
living and nonliving things in an environment, together with their interactions- Week 2 begins
evaporate
to change from a liquid to a gas
function
the special, normal, or proper activity of an organ or part
trials
the number of times an experiment is repeated; more are necessary to prove experiements!
gravity
a force of attraction between objects that is due to their masses; larger objects have more gravitational pull; ex. sun vs. Earth
meiosis
process by which the number of chromosomes per cell is cut in half through the separation of chromosomes in a diploid cell
joules
Unit of Energy
milliliter
a metric unit of volume equal to one thousandth of a liter
mixture
a substance consisting of two or more substances mixed together (not in fixed proportions and not with chemical bonding)
nonmetal
element that is a poor conductor of heat and electricity and lacks the qualities of a metal.
speed
the ratio of the distance an object moves to the amount of time the object moves; D/T- week 3 begins
meter
the basic unit of length adopted under the Systeme International d'Unites
newtons
The unit of measurement for force
nutrients
substances in food that your body needs to grow, to repair itself, and to supply you with energy
volume
the amount of 3-dimensional space occupied by an object
variable
a factor that changes in an experiment in order to test a hypothesis
mitosis
the stage of the cell cycle during which the cell's nucleus divides into two new nuclei and one copy of the DNA is distributed into each daughter cell
synthesize
To combine so as to form a new, complex product or idea
states of matter
The physical forms of matter, which include solid, liquid, and gas
rotation
spinning of Earth on its imaginary axis, which takes about 24 hours to complete and causes day and night to occur
control
a standard against which other conditions can be compared in a scientific experiment; the comparison group
precipitation
water that falls to Earth as rain, snow, hail, or sleet- week 4 begins
offspring
a new organism produced by a living thing-Week 4 begins
oxygen
a gas that animals need to use in respiration and that plants give off into the air during photosynthesis; element symbol: O
gamete
haploid reproductive cells; ex. sperm or egg
photosynthesis
process by which plants use the sun's energy to convert water and carbon dioxide into sugars
Zygote
fertilized egg; first cell after sperm fertilizes an egg.
range
the difference between the highest and lowest scores in a distribution
Record Data
the results and your observations from the experiment are recorded. use tables, graphs or charts to show your results.
reliable
can be trusted or depended on
reproduce
have offspring or young
revolution
Earth's yearlong elliptical orbit around the sun
water cycle
the continuous movement of water between Earth's surface and the air, changing from liquid to gas to liquid
weathering
the process by which rock materials are broken down by the action of physical or chemical processes
weight
the vertical force exerted by a mass as a result of gravity-Start Week 5
work
a manifestation of energy; Ex. the transfer of energy from one physical system to another expressed as the product of a force and the distance through which it moves a body in the direction of that force; equals force times distance"-
orbit
the (usually elliptical) path described by one celestial body in its revolution about another
atmosphere
a mixture of gases that surrounds a planet or moon
resources
the energy and materials found in a habitat
pressure
the amount of force exerted per unit area of a surface
scale
pattern, make, regulate, set, measure, or estimate according to some rate or standard
solvent
in a solution, the substance in which the solute dissolves
soluble
(of a substance) capable of being dissolved in some solvent (usually water)
survive
to remain alive, to continue living or existing
kilogram
one thousand grams (SI unit of mass)
differentiate
to make or become different; to tell the difference between; to note differences
temperature
A measure of the average energy of motion of the particles of a substance- start week 6
tension
Stress that occurs when forces act to stretch an object
theory
well-tested explanation that unifies a broad range of observations
gram
basic unit of mass
valid
founded on fact or evidence
motion
an object's change in position relative to a reference point
molecule
group of atoms held together by covalent bonds
abiotic
nonliving, physical features of the environment, including air, water, sunlight, soil, temperature, and climate
biotic
the living organisms in an ecosystem
decomposers
organisms that break down wastes and dead organisms and return raw materials to the environment- start week 7
producers
organisms that make their own food; autotrophs
consumers
Organisms that eat living producers and/or other consumers for food; heterotrophs
eclipses
when the moon's shadow hits earth (solar-New moon phase) or earth's shadow hits the moon (lunar-Full moon phase)
extinct
no longer in existence; no longer active; gone out of use
experimental design
A design in which researchers manipulate an independent variable and measure a dependent variable to determine a cause-and-effect relationship
respiratory system
system responsible for taking in oxygen and releasing carbon dioxide using the lungs
organism
a living thing that has (or can develop) the ability to act or function independently
structure
the arrangement of parts in an organism
testable question
Question that can be answered with data from an experiment
season
short period of climate change in an area caused by the tilt of Earth's axis as Earth revolves around the sun
element
any of the more than 100 known substances (of which 92 occur naturally) that cannot be separated into simpler substances and that singly or in combination constitute all matter
dissolve
To mix completely with another substance to form a solution
digestive system
body system the breaks down food and absorbs nutrients
circulatory system
The human body system that contains the heart, blood, and all of the blood vessels. It delivers all the nutrients to the cells
egg
Female germ cell containing 1/2 of somatic cell chromosomes- all eggs are X chromosome
sperm
Male germ cell containing 1/2 of somatic cell chromosomes- 50% of sperm are Y & 50% X chromosome -end week 7
credibility
the quality of being believable or trustworthy- Start week 8
procedure
a set sequence of steps to complete an experiment
surface water
water contained in places such as lakes, ponds, rivers, streams, and reservoirs and above the ground
compound
substance formed by the chemical combination of two or more elements in definite proportions
Celsius
Metric unit for measuring temperature; On this scale water freezes at zero and boils at 100.
kinetic energy
the energy an object has due to its motion
ground water
water that seeps downward into and through soil or rock; water stored underground in rock layers
irradiation
Ionizing radiation applied to food to kill microorganisms and other pests. Ionizing radiation disrupts the internal molecular workings of cells, killing them.
folded rock
When rocks are deformed plastically,
they are bent into sloping folds
faulted rock
When rocks are deformed (broken) brittly, they are displaced along fractures
valleys
a low area between mountains or hills where streams and rivers often flow
floodplains
Low lands along riverbanks, lakes, and coastlines subjected to periodic indunation of water- end week 8
line graphs
display changes in quantities over time or distance.- start week 9
bar graphs
useful when comparing categorical (word) data by groups
dehydration
dryness resulting from the removal of water
solution
a homogeneous mixture of two or more substances that involves dissolving; it can still be separated
musculo-skeletal system
The way your muscles and bones work together with the help of your nerves, and use the energy provided by cellular respiration within your cells to produce movement.
Potential energy
stored energy that is latent but available for use. A rock poised at the top of a hill or water stored behind a dam are examples.
Fahrenheit
A temperature scale with the freezing point of water 32 degrees and the boiling point of 212 degrees is also known as,
energy transformation
When energy changes from one form to another. E can never be created or destroyed. Law of Conservation
pickling
is when acids like vinegar are used to preserve some food
chromosomes
threadlike structures made of DNA molecules that contain the genes; humans have 46 chromosomes in 23 pairs
density
mass divided by volume; the amount of matter in a given space
septic & sewage systems
designed to clean human waste water and eventually drain into ground and surface water
mitochondria
Powerhouse of the cell, organelle that is the site of ATP (energy) production through cellular respiration
cytoplasm
a jellylike fluid inside the cell in which the organelles are suspended
cell membrane
thin, flexible barrier around a cell; regulates what enters and leaves the cell- end week 9
nucleus
The organelle that contains the DNA and controls the processes of the cell- start week 10
ovary
female reproductive organ that produces egg cells and hormones
testes
male reproductive glands, which produce sperm and testosterone
condensation
the process by which a gas changes to a liquid as it cools
mechanical advantage
the ratio of the force exerted by a machine (output) to the force applied to it (input)
tectonic plates
individual sections of the lithosphere of the earth. They fit together in a way similar to a jigsaw puzzle, but are always moving very slowly, floating on the molten rock of the lower mantle.
circular motion
motion in a circle caused by a resultant force acting towards the center of the circle; ex sun's gravity pulls Earth's orbit out of a straight path.
Long Island Sound
a body of water (sound) between Long Island and Connecticut; all watersheds in CT reach LI sound
compression forces
forces that push toward each other
tension forces
are forces that pull apart, can stretch earths crust
load
forces that act upon a structure, machine, or bridge