83 terms

Bee Biology and Beekeeping

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What is the scientific name of European honey bee?
Apis mellifera
Name the 4 developmental stages in the honey bee life cycle.
1. Egg
2. Larva
3. Pupa
4. Adult
What are the three castes in the honey bee?
1. Queen
2. Worker
3. Drone
What is the main function of drones in a hive?
To mate with queens
Honey bees belong to the order:
Hymenoptera
Bees likely originated from
Wasps
What is the primary source of protein for bees?
Pollen
Workers can make a queen from a larva that is
3 or less days old
Caste in honey bees is determined by:
Nutrition
List at least two differences between a bee and a wasp
1. Bees are more hairy than wasps
2. Bees have crops and pollen baskets
3. Bees are not carnivorous
Drones develop from:
Unfertilized eggs
Exchange of food between individuals is called
trophollaxis
Honey bees carry nectar in a specialized structure called
crop
Langstroth's invention revolutionized beekeeping based on what simple concept?
Bee space
Name the structure on the hind legs of honey bees that helps carry pollen to the hive.
Pollen baskets (corbicula)
What is the average temperature in the brood nest area in a honey bee hive?
33C or 92F
Bee space is
space between comb layers
Nest-site selection factors
1. Volume of cavity
2. Entrance size
3. Distance from parental nest
4. Cavity exposure
3 Eusocial Factors
1. overlapping generations
2. division of reproductive labor
3. cooperative brood care
Queen attendant tasks
1. Feeding royal jelly
2. Grooming and cleaning
3. Transmission of QMP
4. Communicate queen presence to colony
What is festooning
Bees hanging in layers to produce wax
What is DVAV for?
1. Time swarming
2. Control queen emergence
3. Stimulate foraging
What is the Circle dance for?
Stimulates foraging in a nearby area
What resource do the majority of foragers collect?
Nectar
Hypopharyngeal gland purpose
Nurse bees can contribute to brood food production
What is age polyethism?
Older workers perform separate tasks from younger
What are the two main components of communication in honey bees?
Dance language and pheremones
How do honey bees estimate distance they've traveled?
By visual cues and the speed by which the bee passes objects
Honey bees can't see...
Red
Which is the primary orientation mechanism for honey bees?
Sun compass orientation
Name 3 factors that induce swarming
1. hive congestion
2. abundance of brood
3. worker bee age class imbalance
4. absence of QMP
What is the difference bewtten a queen cup and a queen cell?
Queen cup: special cup-like precursors of queen cells
Queen cell: queen is layed in it
What is the first sign of swarm preparation?
Appearance of new queen cups
What is a false swarm?
A false swarm is when a part of the hive swarms without the queen.
Name two swarm control methods
1. Add supers
2. Split colony in half
3. Reverse brood boxes
Newly emerged queens announce their presence to other mature queens in the cells and to queens that have already emerged by
piping
Mention one risk involved in trying to allow colony to raise own queen
Virgin queens will need to be mated, which has a 2-3 times higher cost
If a queen is unable to fly out for mating due to prolonged bad weather
queen will start laying unfertilized eggs
Two weather parameters that are important for mating flights
1. <68 F
2. < 20-28 kmph winds
Best method for incorporating desired genetics in honey bee breeding
Artificial insemination
Will drones or queens emerge and mature first?
Drones
Chemicals used for communication among members of a same species
pheromones
What is the proposed mechanism for smoke's effect on bees?
1. Smoke particles disrupt olfaction
2. Smoke induces gorging behavior
Nasanov pheromone is used for
Orientation
Typically what percentage of the total population do the drones compose in a honey bee colony?
3-5%
Mating occurs in certain specific locations or areas called
Drone congregation areas
What is a mating sign?
Queen returning with endophallus of drone semen on her body
Name at least two ideal conditions that the colony might provide for spread of pathogens?
1. Trophollaxis
2. Thermoregulation
3. Large number of individuals
What is the most serious pest of honey bees?
Varroa mites
What are the morphological differences between a female and male Varroa mite?
1. Females are much larger
2. Females use their legs more like mandibles whereas males use them more like legs
Goal for Varroa management
Keep populations below damaging levels
What kind of damage do Varroa mites cause?
1. Pass on viruses like PMS and DWV
2. Disrupt chitin protection via haemolymph sucking
ON average, how many female Varroa mites can successfully mate and emerge with bee from cell?
2-3
Varroa mites transmit
DWV and PMS
Varroa mites reproduce
inside capped brood
Honey bees are protected by body of
chitin
Burning hives prevents transmission and recurrence of...
American foul brood
Quick test for AFB
Rope test
Synthetic mite control
Apivar
Organic mite control
Essential oils
Problem with essential oil
While fluvinate is thousands times more toxic to mites, essential oils are 2-4 times, and are volatile
Cultural mite control
1. Drone comb traps
2. Screened bottom board
4 types of mite resistance
1. Metabolic: develop ability to detoxify
2. Behavioral: detect and avoid toxins
3. Target site: mutations modify site of bonding
4. Penetration resistance: modify their cuticle
EFB (European Foul Brood)
C-shaped brood
Bacteria
AFB (American Foul Brood)
Ropy brood with odor
Bacteria
Sac Brood
Easily removed, upright brood
Virus
Chalk brood
Mummified brood
Fungus
Israeli Acute Parasitic Virus
Shivering and Paralysis
Chronic Bee Paralysis Virus
Black, hairless, shiny bees
How many hives per acre?
2-3
Pollination value
$20 billion
4 Major crops pollinated
1. Alfalfa seed
2. Almond
3. Fruits
4. Vegetables
When to start in Oregon?
April/May
Hive placement considerations:
1. Weather
2. Food resources
3. Water
4. Sunlight
When to manage hives?
1. Dry, windless days
2. 10AM-2PM
Reasons to inspect hives:
1. Spring and fall
2. To super
3. To harvest
4. To control swarming
5. To overwinter successfully
6. To control pests including mites
When to feed bees:
1. To avoid colony starvation
2. To stimulate colony development
3. Provide newly hived bees with food
4. Stimulate drove production
5. To feed medications
Inspect during fall (4):
1. Amount and position of food reserves
2. Extent and pattern of brood
3. Healthy brood and adult bees
4. Condition of bee hive equipment
What to do in fall:
1. Fall requeening
2. Applying medication
3. Increasing colony strength through food and immunity
4. Reducing colony entrances to reduce robing
5. Preparing hives for winter
Where does the bee cluster move during winter?
Up
Why do colonies die over winter?
1. Colonies run out of food reserves
2. Too few bees to provide protection
3. Bee PMS or cumulative effects of mites and/or diseases
Key to winter success
1. Good colony population
2. Adequate food reserves
3. Good location
4. Healthy bees
5. Luck!
Keys to spring management:
1. rearing of brood (brood)
2. preventing colonies from swarming (health)
3. adding supers to capture surplus honey (food)