AAOS Orangebook, Chp. 23, Bleeding

Five types of blood Vessels
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Terms in this set (23)
Hemophiliacondition in which a person lacks one or more of the blood's clotting factors. A patient with hemophilia should be transported immediately.Internal bleedingany bleeding in a cavity or space inside the body.DCAP_BTLSDeformities, Contusions, Abrasions, Punctures/Penetrations, Burns, Tenderness, Lacerations, SwellingCommon causes of nontraumatic internal bleedingbleeding ulcers, bleeding from the colon, ruptured ectopic pregnancy, aneurysmsMost common symptom of internal bleedingPainS&S of Internal bleedingPain, tenderness, bruising, guarding, or swelling in the area of bleeding, Distention. Dyspnea, tachycardia, and hypotension (in the cases of bleeding into the chest.) Hematemesis (vomited blood.) Melena (digested blood in stool.) Hemoptysis (coughed up blood.) Broken ribs, bruises over the lower part of the chest.Other names for bruisescontusion, ecchymosis, hematomaHematomais a mass of blood in the soft tissues beneath the skin.HematemesisVomited blood. It may be bright red or dark red, and may look like coffee-grounds vomitus.MelenaBlack, foul smelling, tarry stool that contains digested blood.First sign of hypovolemic shockThe first sign for trauma patients is a change in mental status, such as anxiety, restlessness, or combativeness. For non-trauma patients, weakness, faintness, or dizziness on standing. For both trauma and non-trauma, changes in skin color.Lacerated spleen and liver painPatients will have, Pain in the right shoulder with injury to the liver. or Pain in the left shoulder with injury to the spleen.Later signs of hypoperfusion suggesting internal bleeding include (12 signs):Tachycardia, Weakness, fainting, or dizziness at rest, Thirst, Nausea and vomiting, Cold, moist (clammy)skin, Shallow, rapid breathing, Dull eyes, Slightly dilated pupils that are slow to respond to light, Capillary refill of more than 2 seconds in infants and children, Weak, rapid (thready) pulse, Decreasing blood pressure, Altered level of consciousness Prompt transport is necessary of all patients with these signs of internal bleeding.