Introduction to Anatomy + Bones
Terms in this set (70)
Consists of stretching a muscle (or group of muscles) to its farthest point and then maintaining or holding that position.
-Targeting one group of muscles
-Does not move
-Cools the body and heart rate down
Should be done after class or after the body is warm.
Examples: Lunges, splits, straddles, hamstring stretches, calf stretches
Involves moving parts of your body and gradually increasing reach, speed of movement, or both.
-Moving Parts of the Body
-Increasing in Size
-Increasing in Intensity
-Gets the heart rate increasing
-Gets you sweating
Should be done before class or as a warm up.
Examples: Crunches, Chasses, Jogging
The study of the bodily structure of humans, and other living organisms.
The study of human movement
The space your body takes up with your limbs fully stretched out. Aka.... Your Personal space bubble.
Toward the head, the upper part of the body (this is split by the table/transverse plane)
Away from the head, lower part of the body (this is split by the table/transverse plane)
front of the body (this is split by the door/frontal plane)
back of the body (this is split by the door/frontal plane)
Towards the midline/center of the body (example, the middle toe is located at the medial side of the foot).
Away from the midline/center of the body (example, the little toe is located at the lateral side of the foot).
Toward or close to the beginning/ center (example, the hip joint is more proximal than the knee)
Away or far from the beginning/center (example, the toes and finger are the most distal part of the body)
Lies closer to the surface of the body/skin (example, your ribs are more superficial than your lungs)
Lies farther inside of the body, more internal (example, your lungs are deeper inside than your ribs)
the location at which two or more bones make contact.
Straightening of a joint
bending a joint
The joint moves away from the midline of the body (think subtraction)
The joint moves into/towards the midline of the body (think addition).
Moving a bone around it's axis
Circular movements permitted in the ball and socket joints (360 degrees of motion).
The rolling out of the joint (happens in the ankle, also known as sickling)
The rolling inward of the joint (happens in the ankle).
Fibrous Joints & Cartilaginous Joints
Bones connected by fibrous tissue or cartilage, Mostly immobile
Freely moveable joints. They have an articulating bone, which is capped with cartilage and are enclosed in ligaments. The joints are lined with synovial fluid which lubricates the joint.
Ball & Socket Joint
This type of joint has the largest amount of freedom and mobility. The joint can perform circumduction and all of the other actions of the joint. Two main components make up this joint are a bone with a spherical head and a bone with a cup-like socket. (Examples: Shoulder Joint or Hip Joint).
This is a limited ball and socket joint. This type of joint allows movement on two planes of space. This joint permits the actions of Extension, Flexion, Abduction, Adduction, and circumduction with limited range of motion (Example: Wrist Joint or Ankle Joint).
This joint permits action on only one plane of space, allowing for extension and flexion. (Example: Elbow Joint or Knee Joint)
This type of joint allows movement on three planes of space. In a pivot joint, a cylinder shaped bone rotates inside another bone or ligament that forms a ring around it. The joint is created with a ring around another bone. (Example: Neck Joint)
This joint has two concave surfaces. (Example: Thumb Joint)
This joint contains two flat articulating services on which the bones glide against one another (Example: Clavicle)
This plane of space splits the body between front and back half.
Actions along this plane move out sideways.
Examples: Tendu, Degage, or Battement Side, Cartwheel
This plane of space splits the body along the nose separating right and left sides.
Actions along this plane move front and back.
Examples: Tendu, Dégagé, or Battement Back or Front, Inversion, Triplet, Drop Swing
Table/ Transverse Plane
This plane of space splits the body at the hips separating the top and bottom of the body.
Actions along this plane sweep parallel to the floor.
Examples: Flatback, Rond de Jambe, Rond de Jambe en lair, Port de bras a la second.
(14 bones in 1 foot or hand)
Commonly known as the toes or fingers
Collection of 5 bones before the toes
Middle of the foot
Collection of 7 bones near the heel
-Calcaneus & Talus= heel bone
-Cuboid, navicular, and 3 cuneiforms
thigh bone, It is the largest bone of the body
kneecap, Is connected by cartilage to bridge the upper and lower leg
Medial/larger shin bone, Major weight bearing bone of the leg below the patella
The lateral and smaller bone of the lower leg (shin), Bone that runs outside of the tibia and is non weight bearing, Serves as a muscular attachment
consists of 3 bones (ilium, ischium, and pubis) fused together by cartilage. The ischium comes to points at the bottom of each hip bone, they create the sitz bones
consists of the two hip bones and the sacrum. The sacrum is the lower fused region of the spine
Cervical (C-1 to C-7)
Seven vertebrae in the neck support and move the head.
Twelve vertebrae in the chest/upper back area support the shoulders and upper body.
Lumbar (L-1 to L-5)
Five vertebrae in the low back support most of the body weight so they are the largest and strongest of all vertebrae.
Triangular structure of the five attached vertebrae. They form the base of the vertebral column.
(tailbone) - Four fused vertebrae
- Excessive curve (flexion) of the cervical spine
- Excessive curve (extension) of the lumbar spine
- Misalignment of the vertebrae along all sections of the spine
typically known as the collar bone
Center bone between the ribs. It is important for dancers because this area is where an arch comes from and this area moves and expands for breathing
You have 7 true ribs. They connect directly into the sternum. You have 2 false ribs. They float below the other ribs but do not connect to the sternum.
shoulder blade (wing bone)
bone of the upper arm
lateral bone of the forearm (thumb side)
medial bone of the forearm (pinky side)
bones of the wrist
bones of the middle section of the hand
the bony structure of the head
lower jaw bone
Ideal Vertical Alignment
proper, healthy, functional, posture
Ideal Alignment of the feet
-keep their natural arch
-no rolling of the ankles inwards or outwards (aka no pronation or supination)
-toes should be flat, not curled or gripping
Ideal Alignment of the knees
-the kneecap (patella) should be in line with the 2nd and 3rd toes
-Should be supported both front and back (no hyper extension)
Ideal Alignment of the Pelvis
-The pelvis should generally be level
-No posterior of an anterior tilt (Think do not tip the bowl of fruit)
Ideal Alignment of the Spine
-One vertebrae stacked on top of one another
-Lumbar spine should have a small natural curve
Ideal Alignment of the head and neck
-Keep the neck long and keep the head and neck in line with the spine.
The extension of a joint past a normal vertical extension (commonly in the knee)
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