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Terms in this set (51)

Note = this is in the "Trauma & Stressor-Related Disorders" section of the DSM-5
A lack of or incompletely formed preferred attachments to caregiving adults
Results from social neglect or other situations that limit a child's ability to form selective attachments

A. A consistent pattern of inhibited, emotionally withdrawn behavior toward adult caregivers, manifested by both of the following:
1. The child rarely or minimally seeks comfort when distressed.
2. The child rarely or minimally responds to comfort when distressed.
B. A persistent social and emotional disturbance characterized by at least two of the following:
1. Minimal social & emotional responsiveness to others.
2. Limited positive affect.
3. Episodes of unexplained irritability, sadness, or fearfulness that are evident even during nonthreatening interactions with adult caregivers.
C. The child has experienced a pattern of extremes of insufficient care as evidenced by at least one of the following:
1. Social neglect or deprivation in the form of persistent lack of having basic emotional needs for comfort, stimulation, and affection met by caregiving adults.
2. Repeated changes of primary caregivers that limit opportunities to form selective attachments (e.g., foster care).
3. Rearing in unusual settings that severely limit opportunities to form selective attachments.
D. The care in Criterion C is presumed to be responsible for the disturbed behavior in Criterion A.
E. Rule out Autism Spectrum Disorder.
F. The disturbance is evident before age 5.
G. The child has a developmental age of at least 9 months.
Persistent = the disorder has lasted 12+ months.
Severe = if the child exhibits all symptoms of the disorder, with each symptom manifesting at a high level.
Mix of social, gender, familial, psychological, biological, & cultural factors

Societal/cultural factors
Only 5% of American women can achieve the size required for fashion models
Remember discrepancy strain
By 5th grade, 31% of girls are dieting & 11.3% experience disordered eating
~48% of normal-weight adolescent & college aged girls believe they are overweight
Reasons for dieting or being concerned with body image:
Mass media, peer influences, & critical family members

Risk Factors:
Availability & appeal of junk food
Anecdote about the office culture at my pre-doctoral internship
Mass media
Family
*Having an overbearing and critical mother is a major risk factor for developing an eating disorder
Peer influences
American pursuit of unrealistic thinness
Discrepancy strain

Societal/cultural factors
Flow chart:
Unrealistic media portrayal of thinness → stigma of being overweight/rewards of being thin → objectification of women → self-evaluation based on appearance → self objectification → anxiety & shame about appearance → disturbed eating & depression

Cultural factors
EDs seem to be a Western phenomenon
Common in USA, Europe, Israel, and Australia
Uncommon in Asia, Africa, Central America, and South America
Disordered eating ↑ when exposure to Western values & culture ↑
Fiji study (Becker, 2004)
Huge increase in disordered eating among Fijian women upon being exposed to Western media for 3 years
In Fiji, larger women are considered more attractive!
American media is poisonous
Let's watch a clip about this from the documentary America the Beautiful

European-American women are much more likely to have EDs (only 11% report being satisfied with weight or body shape)
African American women are the least likely to have EDs
Lesbians have fewer body image problems than heterosexual women
9% of those with EDs are male
Males particularly at risk = high school and college wrestlers
Gay men are more likely to have body image concerns than heterosexual men