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c&l exam #4
Terms in this set (30)
behavior matches relative reinforcement rate. B1/B1+B2=R1/R1+R2 by herrnstein
organisms will make choices so as to maximize some dimension of reinforcement
what do behavioral economists believe?
behavioral economists believe that the matching law describes choice behavior adequately, but optimization theory explains it.
what does melioration theory accomodate?
accomodates FR and VR choice
a likely outcome if COD is not used- the proportion is closer to 50/50
a likely outcome if COF is too excessive- preferences are more extreme than matching would predict.
how is behavioral economics better at predicting choice than the matching law in the experiements by widholm et al?
widholm et al used an operant panel reinforcing monkeys. tokens were used to buy food on a concurrent fixed ratio schedule. they found monkeys are sensitive to amount and preferred schedules with a lower reinforcement rate but a higher stock. better than the matching law at predicting choice because the matching laws predictions are based only on reinforcement rates.
the subjective value of immediate reinforcer can be higher than more distant reinforcers. this theory complicates choice. it predicts choice in self control studies by allowing subjects to commit to a certain outcome in advance of reinforcement.
vicarious pavlovian conditioning
a situation in which a conditioned response is more likely in an observer after having watched a model undergo pavlovian conditioning
Barnett and Benedetti example of possible vicarious pavlovian conditioning
The GSR of an observer was monitiored as they watched another subject undergo pavlovian fear conditioning (buzzer paired w shock) observer shows signs of fear when buzzer comes on. this is actually higher order conditioning.
two-process theory of avoidance
The theory that avoidance behavior is the result of two distinct processes: (1) classical conditioning, in which a fear response comes to be elicited by a CS, and (2) operant conditioning, in which moving away from the CS is negatively reinforced by a reduction in fear.
study in which vicarious pavlovian conditioning is refuted: Venn & Short (1973)
pre school children had no preference to donald duck toys over mickey mouse toys. then they watched a video of a 5 year old boy acting fearfully to one of two toys. after the video, the children had a preference to the toy that wasn't scary to the boy in the video. this is not viacrious pavlovian conditioning because the kids didnt witness the pairing of the UCS and the CS, they only see the outcome. its higher order conditioning. the fear response in the model is a signal to the observer
Bandura's 4 aspects of social-cognitive theory of observational learning
1. attentional- attending to appropriate elements of behavior of interest.
2. retentional- an intentional retentional element, one will covertly rehearse this behavior in their mind
3. motor reproductive- you have to have requisite motor skills or the potential to derive them
4. motivational- you have to be motivated
criticisms of bandura's model
attentional component- is it attention or learning history due to prior learning history because they know what to attend to.
retentional- non human subjects are unlikely to rehearse behaviors internally.
why is the two process theory of avoidance actually a process of escape?
because performance of the behavior actually terminates the aversive stimulus
solomon & wynne findings on two process theory
found that avoidance responses occur so quickly that there is insuffiencent exposure to the CS for the conditioned fear to fully extinguish.
according to the one-process theory of avoidance, the avoidance response is reinforced by _____
a reduction in the number of aversive events
conditioned suppression theory of punishment
believed punishers exerted its influence on behavior and caused decrease in behavior via competition. aversive stimuli produces unwanted emotional byproducts- the root of punishers ability
one way in which punishment can lead to a parent being abusive is that
punishment usually results in the termination of the child's aversive behavior, which is negatively reinforcing for the parent
the matching law is able to predict choice behavior in...
complex real world situations even without accounting for any other factors known to contribute to the behavior
removal of specific reinforcer
avoidance theory of punishment
do anything except the punished behavior. stimuli conditioned with punisher making behavior itself a signal for punishment so one does anything else to avoid/remove themselves from their own behavior.
Premack principle of punishment
relative value of activities can be reversed to use lower valued behaviors as punishers for higher valued behaviors. views reinforcement and punishment as mirror opposites
an organism will shift its behavior (to make things better for themselves) toward higher value alternatives without regard to the effect on overall level of reinforcement
behavioral economists believe that the matching law ____ choice behavior adequately, but optimization theory ____ it
stock influences choice
inflexible, doesnt change as uch as a function of wealth
change as a function of wealth. a "good" e.g going to the movies
In stimulus enhancement, the probability that an observer's behavior is changed because..
the observer's attention is drawn to an item or location by another individual
vicarious learning is sensitive to different levels of observed reinforcement and/or punishment, much like direct operant conditioning
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