Unit 6: Americans in the Mid-1800's

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Which cities outside of the slave states were involved in the slave trade.
Boston and New York
How did Americas slave population continue to grow rapidly, even though Congress had banned the importation of new slaves in 1808?
New slaves were illegally smuggled in from the Caribbean as slave ships headed for Louisiana, Alabama, Mississippi and Texas sailed around Florida.
What obstacle did both free and enslaved Black Americans have to face in the 1800's?
Both free enslaved Black Americans faced racism and segregation.
What was the legal circumstance of an enslaved person in the mid-1800's?
Slaves were legally considered property.
How did the lives of urban and rural enslaved Black Americans differ?
Urban slaves enjoyed a little more freedom because they were often allowed to live alone.
What measures did southerners take to prevent free African Americans in the South from rebelling?
They were prevented from traveling without permission or owning guns.
What sort of discrimination did Black Americans face in the North?
They were segregated (kept out) from white spaces.
Who owned slaves in the South?
Wealthy land owning families.
How did the invention of the Cotton Gin make the south more reliant on slavery?
It increased the cotton production of the South and deepened the South's reliance on slavery.
How did the increase cost of enslaved peoples impact the lives of Black men and women trapped in slavery?
Southerners were less like to discuss ending slavery.
How did the teaching differ between White churches and "invisible" Black churches?
While White churches taught that slaves should be obedient to their masters, Black churches focused on stories of slaves escaping to freedom.
Why were Black churches sometimes referred to as "invisible churches."
In many cases, Black churches had to meet in secret because they were forbidden.
What two reform movements did Sojourner Truth represent in the mid-1800's?
Abolition and Women's Rights
Reform - (Define)
To make changes in society to correct injustice.
According to new teaching during the Second Great Awakening, how could a person receive, "forgiveness for their sins?"
A person could receive salvation by doing good works.
In what regions of the country were the teachings of the Second Great Awakening most popular?
In the North and the West.
Transcendentalism- (Define)
A philosophy that promoted the idea that people can go beyond reason and logic, and use their natural feelings to determine right and wrong.
What unique belief did Ralph Waldo Emerson have about human beings?
Emerson believed that all human beings have unlimited potential for goodness, but needed to discover the ability to rise above (transcend) the material desires of the world.
What new idea did Transcendentalists bring to the Reform Era?
Transcendentalism encouraged people to question societal norms like slavery and the unequal treatment of women.
How did Thoreau live out the ideals of Transcendentalism?
He spent two years living in isolation.
How did Thoreau's book, "Life in the Woods," impact the Reform Era?
It encouraged people to leave society and form experimental ideal communities.
What belief was expressed by people's efforts to form communities like Brook Farm?
The belief that society could be transformed or made better.
Which of the following conditions did Dorothea Dix encounter American jails?
Children were housed with adults, debtors were imprisoned for years, and the mentally ill were abused and kept in crowded cells.
How were the mentally ill treated in American jails?
They were often abused and crammed into crowded filthy cells for convenience.
Which of the following changed as a result of Dorothea Dix's efforts?
A juvenile courts system was established, as well as a system to care for the mentally ill, and the practice of imprisoning debtors was outlawed in most states.
What issues were poor children causing in cities like New York?
Poor children on the streets would commit vandalism, steal and light fires.
According to Horace Mann, how would cities like New York benefit from educating all children?
He argued that children could be educated to be good citizens, and that education would provide them a path toward improving their condition in life.
Who did not have access to education, despite the efforts of Horace Mann?
Women had limited access and Black Americans had almost no access to education.
Abolitionist - (Define)
To legally end the practice of slavery.
Which Americans opposed slavery from the very beginning?
Quakers
What, "strange position," were women abolitionists in?
Women were often fighting for the rights of Black Americans that were denied to them.
What did Lucretia Mott and Elizabeth Stanton experience at the 1840 World Anti-Slavery Convention?
Women were not allowed to speak at the convention, and had to sit in the balcony behind a curtain.
Seneca Falls Convention - (Define)
A gathering of supporters of women's rights in 1848.
What founding document was the Declaration of Sentiments based on?
The Declaration of Independence
What was the legacy of Seneca Falls?
The Seneca Falls Convention launched an organized movement for women's rights.