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AP Biology Animal Systems
Terms in this set (44)
The internal system of communication involving hormones, the ductless glands that secrete hormones, and the molecular receptors on or in target cells that respond to hormones; functions in concert with the nervous system to effect internal regulation and maintain homeostasis.
A ductless gland that secretes hormones directly into the interstitial fluid, from which they diffuse into the bloodstream.
A form of regulation in which accumulation of an end product of a process slows the process; in physiology, a primary mechanism of homeostasis
A hormone secreted by pancreatic beta cells that lowers blood glucose levels. It promotes the uptake of glucose by most body cells and the synthesis and storage of glycogen in the liver and also stimulates protein and fat synthesis.
A hormone secreted by pancreatic alpha cells that raises blood glucose levels. it promotes glycogen break-down and release of glucose by the liver.
GH (Growth Hormone)
A hormone that is produced and secreted by the anterior pituitary and that has both direct (nontropic) and tropic effects on a wide variety of tissues specifically regarding development and bone length.
Lipids that act as chemical messengers; synthesized from cholesterol
Polar hormones incapable of permeating the cell membrane that bind to surface receptors and act through secondary messengers.
A form of regulation in which an end product of a process speeds up that process; in physiology, a control mechanism in which a change in a variable triggers a response that reinforces or amplifies the change.
Quick and non-specific, providing a generalized protection from most intruding organisms and toxins. (skin, macrophages)
The ability, obtained during the life of the individual, to produce specific antibodies and T cells
White blood cells that engulf invading pathogens
e.g., neutrophils, macrophages
White blood cell
Humoral response by producing antibodies; activated by T cells or free antigens
Cell-mediated immune response, stimulated by antigen-presenting cells (macrophages).
Helper T Cell
Set off an alarm to the immune system that pathogens have broken through the body's line of defense; activates B cells
Killer T cells (cytotoxic T cells)
Kills body cells that have been infected with pathogens; stimulated by antigens and helper T-cells
Antigen-presenting cell that engulfs large numbers of pathogens; presents antigen to activate T cells
Responsible for lifelong immunity by storing copy B cells to more quickly fight secondary infection
Y-shaped protein with variable antigen bind region; slows pathogens to facilitate destruction
Identifying marker on the outside of a pathogen
Temporary immunity where antibodies are transferred from another animal
ex: mother transfers some of her antibodies to her nursing child
main cell of the nervous system
contains nucleus of the neuron
receive stimuli; highly branched extensions
conduct and propagate impulses
the location where axons terminate at the synapse for transmission of information by the release of a chemical transmitter
pick up stimuli from the environment and send to the brain
sends impulses to muscles to create movement
neurons in the CNS that communicate internally and connect sensory to motor neurons; are responsible for reflexes
membrane potential of a neuron that is not firing, -70 mV
protein that uses active transport to move 3 Na out of the membrane and 2 K in, which resets the neuron to resting potential
rapid change in the voltage between the membrane of a neuron in response to a stimulus
the voltage needed to open the voltage gated Na channels and start the unstoppable flow of Na into the cell, -55 mV
the massive influx of Na causes the cell's voltage to become less negative, all the way up to 35 mV
Na channels close and K channels open, which allows K out of cell so the cell is more negative
because K channels are slow to close, the voltage reaches -80 mV, and causes the Na/K pump to reset the neuron
period where the neuron resets using the Na/K pump before a neuron can be fired again
transmission of information is from one neuron to the next
molecule that neurons use in synaptic transmission
hold the neurotransmitters in the presynaptic neuron
ion responsible for depolarization
ion responsible for depolarization
ion that signals vesicles to release neurotransmitters