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Terms in this set (30)
The concept that the earth's surface was shaped in the past by gradual processes, such as erosion, and by sudden small changes, such as earthquakes, like the processes we see today rather than sudden catastrophic acts.
The theory that major changes in the earth's crush result from sudden catastrophes, such as the impact of a large meteor, rather than from gradual evolutionary processes.
Rock that has formed through the deposition and solidification of a material, especially material transported by water.
Rocks that are subjected to high heat and pressure which causes a profound change in form.
One of the three main rock types and formed through the solidification of magma or lava
A continuous process by which rocks are created, changed from one form to another, destroyed, then formed again
"Turned to stone", a fossil in which minerals replace all or some of an organism
Formed when a mold is filled up with sediment three dimensional
Evidence of plants, animals, and other organisms in the form of preserved footprints, tracks, burrows, borings, and feces left behind rather than the actual organisms remains
A plant, animal, or other organism that is perfectly preserved for many years
The true age of a rock or fossil
Atoms of the same element that have the same number of protons but different numbers of neutrons
The rate of decay of unstable isotopes can be used to estimate the absolute ages of fossils and rocks
The time taken for the radioactivity of a specified isotope to fall to half its original value.
A radioactive isotope which is present in organic materials and is the basis for radiocarbon dating
Geologic time scale
A system that divides Earth's history into intervals of time defined by major events or changes on Earth
The era of time prior to 600 million years ago, covering 90% of earth's history into three eras: Hadean, Archean, Proterozoic
The era, which ran from about 542 million years to 251 million years ago, known for great change on Earth with plants becoming widespread and the first vertebrate animals colonizing land. Also known for the breaking up of a super-continent and formation of another
An interval of time known as the age of the reptiles from about 252 to 66 million years ago
An era that spans about 65 million years ago also known as age of mammals
The geologic age of a fossil organism, rock or geologic feature or event defined relative to other organisms, rocks, or features or events rather than in terms of years
Law of Superposition
A geologic law that states in any undisturbed sequence of rock layers the youngest layer is on the top and the oldest layer is on the bottom
Rock formations from magma that cools and solidifies within the crust of the plant
Rock formations from magma that cools and solidifies above the surface of crust
The gap in the sequence of rock layers, the surface where new rock layers meet a much older rock surface beneath them
Fossils that are used to define and identify geologic time periods
A group of extinct segmented hard shelled marine arthropods that lived over 520 million years.
The process of becoming extinct where a species comes to an end or dies out
A break or fracture in the ground that occurs when the Earth's tectonic plates move or shift and are areas where earthquakes are likely to occur.
A core sample of ice removed from an ice sheet most commonly in the polar ice caps of Antarctica, provides information on climate from different periods (up to almost one million years) that can be used for research.
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