Exam 2-International Studies
Terms in this set (75)
A document constituting a fundamental guarantee of rights and privileges. It lives on in the UDHR.
-Emphasis on natural laws
-Hugo Grotius--separation of church and state
This political revolution began with the Declaration of Independence in 1776 where American colonists sought to balance the power between government and the people and protect the rights of citizens in a democracy.
French Revolution//Declaration of the Rights of Man and Citizen
French Revolution document that outlined what the National Assembly considered to be the natural rights of all people and the rights that they possessed as citizens
people who read first person account by someone unlike them will have more sympathy, she focus on newspapersl
Drafting the UDHR
-Eleanor Roosevelt was the chair woman
-Authorship was collective
-The people who drafted it represented different faiths, nationalities, and philosophical positions
-Created in response to the WW2 atrocities
-First comprehensive document outlining human rights
Contribution of the UDHR (positive)
-Anyone can understand the language
-Easy to translate
-People used it to advocate for their own rights
Contribution of the UDHR-negative
-Not a binding treaty--implementation left to states
-Only applicable to west
-Culture is the the ultimate source of validity for moral standards and rules (Rights in the UDHR are not universal)
-Culture is not relevant to the validity of moral standards and rules (Rights in UDHR are universal)
Basic Humanitarian Principles-Neutrality
policy of supporting neither side in a war
Basic Humanitarian Principles-Impartiality
the idea that the same ethical standards are applied to everyone, aid workers provide assistance without regard to the identity of the person; his or her dignity as human comes first
Basic Humanitarian Principles-Independence
Humanitarian organization must strive to make decisions independently of the political influences from funders, and to avoid becoming implements of government policies and priorities
Perspectives on Humanitarian Action-Impulse
Governments should be ready to intervene only when requested to (David Reef). Humanitarian action is a good thing but should be limited, because at the end of the day it's not really your business
Perspectives on Humanitarian Action-Imperative
If states fail to protect their own citizens then the international community must step in. When humanitarian action is necessary, the rest of the world does not need the host country's permission to help out. (Garrett Evans)
Perspectives on Humanitarian Action-Imperialism
Efforts to assist are always contaminated by devious ulterior motives. Can cause more problems than can solve in the long run (Jean Bricmont)
Pros of militarizing humanitarian aid
Gives aid to those in need during the conflict with the protection of the military in the hostile, insecure environments.
Cons of militarizing humanitarian aid
Loss of the distinction between aid workers and military officer, leads to attacks on aid workers. Access is provided for aid workers through corridors, yet those are often unsafe as well.
UN Human Rights Committee (treaty bodies committees)
Monitors that certain action steps taken are still conserving the rights highlighted in the International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights (ICCPR). Different treaties surrounding discriminations. Committee of experts monitor the implementation in the states that sign for each treaty. Signatories of the ICCPR submit reports on actions they have taken to safeguard the rights specified in the Covenant. There's a weakness because the recommendations are general and lack specific actions points.
Human Rights Council
A review involving all UN member states. Provides country-specific mandates (review information in country of concern) and thematic mandates (review information on topic of concern). Still left up to states on how they are going to implement human rights, self-policing.
UN High Commissioner for Human Rights
Appointed official of the United Nations who leads efforts to uphold international human rights. They place representatives in location of concern and as a result the representatives can bring more sustained attention to a certain area, fewer constraints.
International Criminal Court
Tries individuals for genocide, war crimes, crimes against humanity, and aggression when states are unable, or unwilling. It is the court of "last resort." The system is designed to make sure that the worlds puts in place legal norms and to establish that certain crimes will not go unpunished. It takes a long time to take a case before the court and it is very expensive for the international community.
Governments collaborate with everyone involved which is a pro but a con would be that governments can try to politically persuade other actors. They fund relief efforts and help with access to relief workers and supporting allies.
IGOs (Intergovernmental Organizations)
Each IGO take a sector to become in charge of. They're responsible for all the government and non government actors that want to contribute to activities in their sectors. Very efficient with distributing leg work but can be crippled with bureaucracy.
NGOs (Nongovernmental Organizations)
Have more cultural expertise on the area and do ground work but are less accountable. Respond with speed, agility, and cultural expertise. Advocate and educate the public.
For profit businesses
Work well in partnership with humanitarians but violate the humanitarian ideal of giving help for no exchange.
historical/political context in which the responsibility to protect
(R2P) was formed
R2P is the responsibility to protect
Sovereignty and nonintervention are affirmed in the UN charter. However, with globalization, sovereignty has eroded on many fronts. There are issues that states can't solve alone, and the growing activities of IGOs and NGOs erode centrality of states as primary actors in world politics.
Used to justify international actions to alleviate human suffering without first receiving consent from the host country
It was first evoked to provide food relief and to reestablish civil order in Somalia in 1993-1994. In 2005 the World Summit endorsed R2P as essentially an understood norm. Chapter 7 of the UN Charter allows use of military force to maintain international peace and security.
Many states fear the potential consequences to their sovereignty that come with R2P.
What are the crimes that trigger an R2P response?
Genocide, war crimes, ethnic cleansing and crimes against humanity
-Use for ethnic clashes, election fraud, internment
-Ex. providing aid to government and citizens
use of force
-Used for genocide
-Criteria must be met
-Ex. air strikes on military bases
What is the "responsibility to react"?
To respond to situations of compelling need in appropriate manners, including through potentially coercive measures like sanctions and international prosecution, and in extreme cases through military intervention.
criteria for responsibility to protect
1. Just Cause-A significant amount of casualties for example
2. Right Intention-Primary motivation is to alleviate something
3. Final Resort-Have all options been considered and deemed unlikely to succeed
4. Legitimate Authority-Delicate and unfortunate. Rests with the security council. Takes them a while.
5. Proportional Means-Do the minimum necessary to make a change and nothing more
6. Reasonable Prospect-As a result of this operation will you do more good than harm? Can you make things better or worse?
What is the CNN effect?
CNN effect describes the extensive influence the 24 hour news cycle has on humanitarian aid and international policy. A belief that media can galvanize world opinion against human rights abuses.
stimulate policy dialogue pressures policy-makers, raises awareness about crises, and encourages aid
Policymakers may act or speak too quickly because they're often at the hands of the whims of the media, can spread inaccurate or skewed news, calls to action without any kind of direction about what needs to be done, or can block out important information
Example of failure of international human rights law in the modern era
The crisis in Yemen has been forestalled because the Security Council has prevented any action against sanctioning Saudi Arabia
Example of victory of international human rights law in the modern era
Attempting to prosecute those responsible in the Rwandan genocide (In the ICC?)
Montreal Protocol on Substances that Deplete the Ozone Layer
-Global agreement to reducing ozone-depleting substances in order to protect the ozone layer
-First treaty to address an environmental problem at the international level
-Considered the different financial situations of each country and how that affects each of their responsibilities
-Set goals and timetables with the intent of reducing harmful greenhouse gas emissions
-Not ratified by the U.S. Senate-Also not supported by China and India
-Expired in 2012 and global greenhouse emissions continue to rise
-U.S. support for national environmental protection programs has been on the decline
-196 countries negotiated it
-The goal of the agreement was to keep climate change below 2 degrees Celsius
-It allows each country to set its own goals
-Wealthier countries agreed to help support developing countries with mitigation and adaptation
-If this protocol were followed the global temperature would still only go down by the less than one degree Fahrenheit
Human rights violations in the world today:
-The right to seek asylum and children's rights to stay with their families
-Lack of humanitarian aid in Venezuela
SO why do human rights violations persist?
-Implementation left to states
-Significant variation in norms and values
-Recommendations lack actionable information
-Worst violator not always singled out
-Consequences for violations often lacking
The existence of a human rights regime is unlikely to change anything, states will only observe human rights to the extent that it is in their interests and they'll reserve the rights that are in there
It's in the interest of all countries to participate and observe human rights. How can we strengthen these laws so that they appeal to more countries and work for more countries? They recognizes that sometimes it will be helpful and sometimes it won't be helpful.
Willingness to accept a human right has to do with how they view that human rights. They're also interested in how does the existence of human rights shape the way people in a country think about their situation and the decisions that a government takes. How ideas takes action and shift behavior. Led countries to think differently about what is permissible and advisable. Affects how we are perceived by other countries.
David Rieff "A Bed for the Night"
-Humanitarian action is a good thing, but it should be limited
-should not interfere in the affairs of other country
-it's an obligation
norms and values vary across cultures so their can't be one set that is technically "universal" (pretty western)
series of treatis regarding human rights
Dealing with the causes and changing actions
-Use less carbon-based energy
--Energy efficiency and conservation
--Slowing of population growth
-Continue to use carbon-based energy but prevent adverse consequences
--Carbon capture and storage
--Remove greenhouse gases from the atmosphere (not feasible with our current technology)
-Develop alternative energy
--Solar thermal, photovoltaics wind, nuclear, hydrogen fuel cells, biofuels, hydropower
Dealing with the consequences
-Involves adjusting to future climate
-Less use of coal
-Less use of nuclear power
-He believes traditional adaptive and mitigative efforts to stop climate change are wasteful and are too expensive considering how little would change.
-We should use the money we as a world want to use on climate change efforts instead on fighting malaria and TB and HIV and other larger issues
-Does not believe in cutting carbon emissions
-Believes in more cost-effective, long-run adaptive measures to fight climate change
-His Criticisms: The climate impact of Paris Agreement's promises is miniscule; call to conscience (Paris Accords) and coercion (Kyoto Protocol) are ineffective in helping to improve the environment
-His Solutions: privatization of technological innovation-less government regulation accompanied by a free market economy and private ownership of industry
-Likely exists due to states trying to advance own interests
-Each state has to come to their decisions about environmental policy-more likely to work if profitable for states to implement
-In order to be successful, international community and institutions must work together to come up with a solution for long-term well-being (2 heads is better than one)
-Shared values/ideals can be used to come up with a solution
-Need to understand what norms are, what the motivation is for creating the solution and why (find common ground)
Natural causes of climate change
earths position, solar energy, volcanic activity, plate movement, glaciation, el nino cycles
anthropogenic climate change
alterations to climate resulting from human impact
-greenhouse gas emissions, deforestation, pollution
A state of complete mental and physical well-being, rather than simply the absence of infirmary. The health of populations in a worldwide context that go beyond the perspectives and concerns of individual countries. Global health is about an international collaborative approach to achieving equity in health for all people worldwide.
A figure indicating how long, on average, a person may be expected to live
infant mortality rate
The percentage of children out of 1,000 who die before their first birthday within a particular area or country.
DALYs (disability-adjusted life years) DALY=YLL (years of life lost due to dying early-mortality) + YLD (years of life lost to disability-morbidity)
a measure of the reduced quality of life caused by disability
the number of deaths per a particular population (by sex, age, race, etc.)
Refers to ill health in an individual and the levels of ill health in a population or group.
How has life expectancy changed in industrialized countries?
-Low and more stable mortality rates
-More advanced medicine
How did development in Equatorial Guinea impact health?
Once the oil boom hit, the revenue and the actual oil didn't ever reach the hands of villagers, therefore health and income stayed constant.
when a population with high fertility and mortality rates shift toward lower rates of both → due to focus on family planning and controlling infectious diseases
-As societies growth wealthier and fully industrialize, birth rates will fall and overall average population age will rise. (aging pop.)
focuses on distinctive causes of death in each stage of the demographic transition
steady fertility and decrease in mortality people still dying from infectious diseases but less
life expectancy increases and people are dying less of epidemic diseases and more from degenerative diseases
went from high prevalence of undernutrition to control over famine to people facing nutrition related diseases
Be able to describe what the double burden of disease is and what type of countries face it
-The "double burden" of disease is something that many low/middle income countries are currently facing
-The issue encompasses a dual-epidemic in which populations deal with infectious diseases and undernutrition, along with high risk factors such as obesity and overweight
-Though this seems conflicting, it is common to see under-nutrition and obesity simultaneously plaguing a community or nation
How does development impact rates of obesity?
-Development impacts obesity rates because as more restaurants expand they use cheaper, and oftentimes unhealthier, products in order to be more profitable, which rarely compromises on taste
-This leads to more people consuming cheap, unhealthy foods that are highly accessible and convenient, thus contributing to high obesity rates across the world.
-In addition, obesity increases with income level and urbanization, which are byproducts of global development, but it also occurs in rural areas as well.
How can cross-cultural differences in perceptions of health impact treatment responses? (Stonington reading)
-In "Whose Autonomy," Scott Stonington explores the dichotomy in cultural responses to health care
-Utilizes anecdotes from his medical residency and his time performing anthropological field work in Northern Thailand to show contrast
-In America, more autonomy is given to the patient themselves, while in Thailand, caregiving decisions were in the hands of others (in this case, the man's son)
-Different responses impact amount of care doctors are able to administer, questions are to be made of importance of individual or family autonomy.
What is the difference between biosocial and biomedical approaches to global health? Biosocial Approach (external variables)
-Looks at the interplay between individual biological and behavioral, and economic, social and political determinants
-Looking at factors external to the individual that contribute to health outcomes
-Interested in identifying those at risk, reducing their risk, when their illness occurs and treating their disease
-Looks at genetics, individual behaviors, and direct exposure to harmful particles
Understand and be able to describe epidemiological transition.
A change in mortality and disease patterns whereby society experiences a shift from a period of high and fluctuating mortality rates largely attributable to communicable diseases to a period of lower and more stable mortality rates primarily due to chronic noncommunicable diseases/tr