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Acid-Base Balance NCLEX
Terms in this set (78)
What are 3 major important chemicals you have to remember?
What is the major lung chemical?
What are the 2 important kidney chemicals?
if the blood is acidic, alkaline, or basic
What does the pH tell you about the blood?
What is the normal pH range?
acidosis ... can lead to coma then death
pH below 7.35
alkalosis .. can lead to convulsions then death
pH above 7.45
The kidneys remove acid through _____ and hold onto ____ and return to the blood
excrete; hours to days
or kidneys can ____ through the urine; kidneys take ____ to do their job
one of the ways lungs get rid ofCO2 is what?
What is the normal range for PaO2?
What is the normal range for PaCO2?
What is the normal range for HCO3?
In respiratory acidosis what is the problem?
What chemical is causing the problem in respiratory acidosis?
too much .. retaining too much acid
In respiratory acidosis, do we have too much or too little of CO2?
is the patient hypoventilating or hyperventilating in respiratory acidosis?
What is going to compensate in respiratory acidosis?
bicarbonate and hydrogen
What chemicals do the kidneys compensate with?
excrete ; bicarb
In respiratory acidosis.... the body must_____ acid and retain ___
What is the pH in respiratory acidosis?
increase CO2 leads to
1) retain CO2..not taking good enough breaths
2) mid-abdominal incision
4) sleeping pills
6) collapsed lung
What are 7 causes of respiratory acidosis?
-headache, confusion, sleepy
-not corrected, leads to coma
what are 3 signs of respiratory acidosis?
1) give them oxygen
if a patient is hypoxic what must you do
restlessness and tachycardia
2 early signs of hypoxia?
restlessness think what first?
1) fix the breathing problem
2) treat pneumonia, get rid of secretions
3) pneumothorax clients will have chest tubes
4) encourage post-op clients to turn, cough and deep breathe
What are 4 treatment options for respiratory acidosis?
-percussion (vibration therapy)
-deep breathing exercises
What are some treatment options to treat pneumonia and get rid of secretions?
In respiratory alkalosis, which organ is sick? which organ is going to compensate?
In respiratory alkalosis, kidneys excrete.... and retain...
What is the problem chemical in respiratory alkalosis?
Is a patient gaining or losing CO2 in respiratory alkalosis?
Is a patient hyperventilating or hypoventilating in respiratory alkalosis?
What is the pH in respiratory alkalosis?
2) hysterical .. client is breathing too fast, removing CO2
3) acute aspirin overdose
What are 3 causes of respiratory alkalosis?
-peri-oral numbness... around mouth
-numbness and tingling in fingers and toes
What are symptoms of respiratory alkalosis?
-do not wait for kidneys to kick in
-breathe into paper bag, cupped hands
-may have to sedate client to decrease respiratory rate
-treat the cause
What are some treatment options for Respiratory Alkalosis?
In Metabolic Acidosis, what organ is sick? What organ is going to compensate?
In Metabolic Acidosis, what chemical is used to compensate?
bicarb and hydrogen
What is the 2 problem chemicals in Metabolic Acidosis?
In metabolic acidosis, the client is retaining_____ or does not have enough _____
What is the pH in Metabolic Acidosis?
respiratory rate; lungs will compensate...Kussmaul respirations to bring down the acid
What increases in Metabolic Acidosis?
3) renal failure
4) severe diarrhea
What are 4 main causes of Metabolic Acidosis?
glucose; protein and fat; ketones; acid
In Metabolic Acidosis, cells are starving for ____, so the body will break down ____ and ____, and produce _____; ketones are ____
GI tract has a lot of bicarb; losing base
Why might severe diarrhea cause metabolic acidosis?
2) muscle twitching, muscle weakness, flaccid paraylis and arrythmias
3) increased respiratory rate .. pt. trying to remove CO2
What are some symptoms of Metabolic Acidosis?
IV sodium bicarb
What drug can be used to help with Metabolic Acidosis but doesn't exactly fix the issue?
In Metabolic Alkalosis, what organ is sick? what organ is going to compensate?
What chemical is used to compensate in metabolic alkalosis?
bicarb and hydrogen
What are the 2 problem chemicals in metabolic alkalosis?
The client in metabolic alkalosis is retaining too much____ and excreting ____
What is the pH in metabolic alkalosis?
1) loss of upper GI contents or NG tube suctioning
2) too many antacids .. too much base
3) too much IV bicarb
What are 3 causes of Metabolic alkalosis?
-llife threatening arrythmias
symptoms in metabolic alkalosis?
Treatment for metabolic alkalosis?
pH is abnormal
pH is normal
all values are usually abnormal
- find the value that matches the pH
What makes you suspected compensation?
Any pH greater than 7.4 in on the...
Any pH less than 7.4....
Bicarb is a what?
Hydrogen is a what?
CO2 is a what?
PCO2 less than 35?
PCO greater than 45?
HCO3 less than 22?
HCO3 greater than 26?
PCO 2: 41
pH : 7.56
partially compensated respiratory acidosis
fully compensated metabolic alkalosis
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