Upgrade to remove ads
Diabetes and Adipose exam 3
Terms in this set (33)
What is the range of normal fasting blood plasma glucose
65-105 mg/dl equivalent to 3.6-5.7 mM
What are the cut-off(glucose) for hypoglycemia and hyperglycemia?
Hyperglycemia >105 mg/dl
Hypoglycemia <65 mg/dl
What is reactive hypoglycemia?
Caused by excessive insulin secretion in response to increased glucose in ISF
How did ancient physicians determine whether a patient had diabetes Mellitus?
Tasting the patients urine
What is the mechanism that causes people with diabetes mellitus to exhibit polyuria? What is polyuria?
Polyuria is increased urine output and in diabetes, polyuria is due to an osmotic effect which makes it impossible for the kidneys to reabsorb as much water from the forming urine.
How is diabetes mellitus diagnosed in modern times? How high does fasting plasma(glucose) need to be in order to receive a diagnosis of diabetes mellitus?
Having a fasting plasma(glucose) equal to or greater than 126 mg/dl, measured on two separate occasions
What does the word "nascent" refer to?
Which type of diabetes mellitus is due to insufficient insulin secretion?
Why is insulin secretion insufficient in one type of DM?
Doe to loss of pancreatic beta cells, thought to be due to auto-immune attack
Does type 1 diabetes mellitus have a genetic compenent? What is the evidence for that?
Yes, it is associated with genes from MHC on Chromosome 6, identical twins concordance rate 40-60%
Why is the incidence of DM1 increasing by -5? annually in the USA? Whats the hypothesis?
Environmental factors such as viruses and bacteria
What is "insulin-resistance"?
When cells cannot adequately respond to insulin
What ultimately happens to pancreatic beta cells in type 2 diabetes mellitus?
Beta cells die
Why is chronic, long term hyperglycemia bad for health? What body structures become damages? How does that affect circulation? What about eyesight?
It can damage blood vessels, causes cardiovascular disease, chronic kidney disease, damaged retinas(which can result in blindness), amputation of lower extremities, nerve damage, and neuropathic pain
What condition can trigger chronic kidney disease?
What condition can cause retinopathy? What is retinopathy?
Hyperglycemia, blindness/damaged retinas
What is responsible for neuropathic pain? What is neuropathic pain?
Hyperglycemia, damaged sensory neurons
Roughly what percentage of americans had diabetes in2014?
Is gestational diabetes type one or type two, neither or both?
What are the risk factors for developing DM2?
Being obese, lack of exercise, habitually drinking sugary drinks
What is diabesity?
A word used to describe DM2 that is caused by obesity
What is prediabetes?
Increased risk of developing DMS, heart disease, and stroke
Insulin-resistance is believed to be caused in some people by being _______ and by lack of ________ ________
Overwight, physical activity
What is an adipokine? Name the six adipokines, and tell whether they increase or decrease insulin-resistance?
Signaling proteins secreted by fat
Leptin(increase), Resistin(increase), Retinol-binding protein(increases), Tumor necrosis factor(increases), adiponectine(decreases), Apelin(decreases)
DM2 is reversible with ________ _________ & ___________
Weight loss and exercise
Insulin-resistance can be reversed by ___________
Metabolic syndrome is a constellation of symptoms involving five things. What are they?
Obesity, insulin-resistance=DM2, Dyslipidemia, hypertension, inflammation
What are cytokines?
Hormones(molecules) secreted by immune cells.
Which type of immune system cells (a white blood cell) invades adipose tissue and secretes pro-inflammatory cytokines?
How can a person increase their concentration of adiponectin?
Weight loss/fat loss
What are the differences between diabetes mellitus and diabetes indipidus?
DI does not involve elevated plasma(they urinate copious volumes of dilute and odorless urine)
What causes neurogenic diabetes insipidus(DI)?
Insufficient secretion of ADH
What causes nephrogenic diabetes Insipidus(DI)? Respiratory physiology?
Failure of the kidneys to respond appropriately to ADH
You might also like...
Ch. 20 Integrated Pathophysiologic Concepts
Patho Quiz 4-Ch. 18
Final Exam: Diabetes Mellitus
bio 196 exam 3- DIABETES MELLITUS
Other sets by this creator
Patholoy Ch. 1
Other Quizlet sets
quiz 2 micor
Research Methods Exam #2 PPT2
spanish 1152 chapter 5 comunicacion
Romeo and Juliet Lines