Lithosphere & Earthquakes
Terms in this set (40)
What are the fastest body waves
Mercalli Scale - used to describe the damage produced by an earthquake.
Why is the moment magnitude scale more accurate to measure the magnitude of large earthquakes.
The Moment Magnitude Scale takes into account the type of soil the earthquake occurred in, the amount of slippage, and the area of the slippage.Based on the amount of energy released during an earthquake.
How do you find the distance to an earthquake's epicenter?
Analyze the arrival times of the P waves and S Waves. 1> find the difference in arrival time using the seismogram 2> use graph to find the distance that correlates to that time
What happens to tsunamis as the move toward shore?
They increase in height.
Where does an earthquake first (1st )occur?
How does the structure of the Earth's interior impact seismic waves?
It affect the speed and direction of seismic waves.
Why do earthquakes usually occur at plate boundaries?
The rock near the boundaries are under great stress.
Epicenter of an earthquake
the point on the Earth's surface directly above the earthquake's focus
What is elastic rebound?
the sudden return of deformed (bent) rock to its undeformed (original) shape
What causes tsunamis?
undersea earthquakes, landslides, volcanic eruptions
Why do fault zones form at plate boundaries?
intense stress occurs there when the plates separate, collide, subduct, or slide past each other
a tracing of earthquake motion that is recorded by a seismograph
an instrument that records ground vibrations
a scale the measure earthquake ground motion; the amount of shaking increases by a factor of 10 for every magnitude increase.
a seismic wave that travels THROUGH the interior of the earth
a seismic wave that travels ON the surface of the earth
Labeled P wave
Labeled S wave
How much more energy does a 5. 0 earthquake release than a 2.0 earthquake?
5 - 2 = 3
30 raised to the 3 power = 27000 x more energy
the focus and epicenter.
What are surface waves?
Earthquake waves that travel along the surface of the earth not through the Earth. These are the last waves to arrive.
the amplitude of s-wave on seismogram.
the theory the pieces of the Earth's lithosphere are in constant motion, driven by CONVECTION in the mantle
a rigid layer of Earth's crust that is believed to drift slowly
the hypothesis that the continents slowly move across Earth's surface
the Earth's densest region and is made up of 2 parts
the layer of hot solid material between the Earth's crust & core
the layer of rock that forms Earth's outer surface
the layer in the earth's upper mantle and directly under the lithosphere in which rock is soft and weak because it is close to melting
the layer of Earth made up of the crust and the rigid rock of the upper mantle averaging about 40 kilometers thick & broken into the plate tectonics.
a fracture in Earth's lithosphere along which blocks of rock move past each other
the force applied by an object pressing on, pulling on, and pushing against another object
the shaking that results from the movement of rock beneath Earth's surface
a weak spot in the crust where magma has come to the surface
the vibrations cause by an earthquake
in an earthquake, the point underground where the rock 1st begin to move
the point on Earth's surface directly above the focus
crash together with violent impact
Process by which one tectonic plate slips beneath another tectonic plate
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