MGT 390 Team Effectiveness Module

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4 challenges using teams
- Globalization (drives competition)
- Competition (drives specialization)
- Specialization (drives integration)
- Emergence of the Information Age
Demeuse & Futrell's definition of a work team
An interdependent collection of individuals who share responsibility for specific outcomes for their organization.
Katzenbach & Smith's definition of a work team
A small number of people with complementary skills who are committed to a common purpose and performance goals for which they hold themselves mutually accountable.
Types of Teams (Galbraith)
- Functional work teams
- Problem-solving work teams
- Multidisciplinary (cross functional) teams
- Self-managing work teams
Steiner's Group Productivity Equation
AP = PP - PL + S

AP: Actual Productivity
PP: Potential Productivity
PL: Process Losses
S: Synergy* NOT INCLUDED IN STEINER'S ORIGINAL EQUATION
When is potential productivity maximized?
When team processes optimally align with resources to meet task demands.
What do process losses consist of?
Motivation and coordination losses.
Model of Team Effectiveness: Organization & Team Environment
- Reward systems
- Communication Systems
- Physical Space
-Organizational Environment
-Organizational Structure
-Organizational Leadership
Model of Team Effectiveness: Team Design
- Task Characteristics
- Team Size
- Team Composition
Model of Team Effectiveness: Team Processes
- Team Development
- Team Norms
- Team Roles
- Team Cohesiveness
Model of Team Effectiveness: Team Effectiveness
- Achieve Organizational Goals
- Satisfy Member Needs
- Maintain Team Survival
Building the Team: Phase 1, Task Analysis
- What work needs to be performed?
- How much authority does the group have to manage its own work?
- What is the focus of work the group will do?
- What is the degree of interdependence among team managers?
- Is there only one correct solution, or is the task more subjective?
- Are team members' interests aligned or competitive
Building the Team: Phase 2, People
- How many people should be on the team?
- Who is ideally suited to do the work?
- What technical, task management, and interpersonal skills are required?
- What types of diversity are optimal in the team?
Building the Team: Phase 3, Relationships
- How do team members socialize each other?
- What roles are (implicitly) negotiated among team members?
- What norms are harmful for the group?
- Is cohesion among team members important?
- How is trust, developed, threatened, and rebuilt among team members?
Task Interdependence
Degree to which task requires collective action (concerns the way inputs go into the work and how the work process is carried out).
Types of Task Interdependence
Pooled, Sequential, Reciprocal, Team.
What do higher levels of task interdependence result in?
- Strong norms developed relating to cooperative, helping and sharing behaviors
- Increased cognitive complexity
- Better interpersonal relationships and skills
- Positive effects on learning
Issues with people include
- Size of team
- Composition of team
- Skills
- Level of diversity
- Team member selection decision
Team Norms: Development
- Actions/behaviors at first meeting
- Explicit statements made by leaders/others
- Past experiences
- Critical events in the team's history
Team Norms: Enforcement
- Reminders
- Ostracism
- Expulsion
Five Stages of Group Development
Forming, Storming, Norming, Performing, Adjourning.
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