115 terms

Unit 1-4 Agriscience Study Guide

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Application of scientific principles and new technologies in agriculture. Ex: controlling crop pests
Agriscience
Food, fiber, and environmental systems
Agriculture
Commercial firms that stem from agriculture. Ex: local tractor business
Agribuisness
Uses principles learned in biology, chemistry and physics in a practical way
Applied Science
Uses technology with living processes
Biotechnology
Care and Management of Livestock, Companion, and Specialty Animals
Animal Science
Design, operation, maintenence, service, selling and use of power units, machinery equipment structures and utilities
Agriscience Engineering
Producing, processing and marketing fruits, vegetables and ornamental plants
Horticulture
Using soil and plant science to manage land and produce crops
Agronomy
Conducts hundreds of surveys every year and prepares reports covering virtually every aspect of U.S. Agriculture
NASS
Invented the cotton gin to remove the cottonseed from the cotton fiber
Eli Whitley
Developed crop rotations and the use of legumes
George Washington Carver
Invented the corn picker, which allowed for quicker and more efficient harvesting
Edmund Quincy
Dramatically changed the raising of livestock by inventing barbed wire
Joseph Glidden
Invented the tractor, replaced the mule for horsepower
Benjamin Holt
Changed the dairy industry by replacing hand milking with the milk machine
Anna Baldwin
Invented the reaper to cut grain in the field
Cyrus McCormick
Improved the iron plow by creating the steel moldboard plow
John Deere
Percentage of the U.S. workforce on the field
2%
Established to teach agriculture and military tactics and do agricultural research. Ex: 1862 LSU 1890 Southern University and Land Grant College
Land Grant Universities
Management of wetlands, rangelands, water, fish and waterlife
Renewable Natural Resource
Works with landowners through conservation planning and assistance designed to benefit the soil, water, air, plants and animals that result in productive lands and healthy ecosystems
NRCS
manages public lands in national forests and grasslands
USFS
provides educational services and assistance in various areas of agriculture
CES
allowed many countries to become self sufficient in food production in the 1960s by utilizing improved varieties and practices
Green Revolution
The world's most important source of vegetable oil
Soybeans
Found in the same states because the crop feeds the animals that this meat product comes from
Cattle/Beef and Corn
Area with the most turkeys
Eastern Region
Area with the most dairy
Piedmont Region
Area with the most apples and Christmas trees
Western Region
Hunger and starvation, not knowing where the next meal will come from.
Food Insecurity
Producer is within 50 miles to consumer.
Local Food Movement
To be regarded as safe, a sewage system must...
decompose human waste
Safe water is...
free of harmful chemicals and organisms
Apartments on one level in large buildings and owned by residents are called...
condominiums
The world's food production capability indicates that...
It could feed itself in theory, but not in practice
Contaminants of food and water include
registered pesticides, contact by cockroaches, and feces and urine
Although plants cannot move to food and water, they survive because of...
their roots, which extract water from any material
The world's population is projected to increase to 7 billion people by...
2012
Agriscience in the United States...
is being replaced by biotechnology
Agriculture development would be described as...
very rapid in the United States in recent years
The inventor of the iron plow was...
Thomas Jefferson
The combine is a combination of the reaper and a...
threshing device
"Yellow jewel" is the name given by the Chinese to...
soybeans
Beltsville Small White is a...
breed of turkey
The great advance in world food production in the 1960s was called the...
Green Revolution
sewage system
receives and treats human waste
safe water
water that is free of harmful chemicals and disease-causing organisms
polluted water
unsafe to drink because it contains waste materials, chemicals, or unhealthful organisms
condominium
a building with many individually owned living areas or units.
townhouse
a row of houses connected by common side walls
famines
widespread starvation
contaminate
adding material that will change the purity or usefulness of a substance
parasites
organisms that live on or inside other organisms as no benefit to the hosts.
insect
a six-legged animal with three body segments
Immune
tree or other plant is not affected by the presence of harmful insects
reaper
a machine to cut small grain
combine
a machine that cuts and threshes plants in a single operation
moldboard plow
plow with a curved bottom that will turn prairie soils. Made by John Deere
cotton gin
Separated the cotton seeds from the cotton fiber. Invented by Eli Whitney
corn picker
Removes ears of corn from the stock. Invented by Edmund W. Quincy
barbed wire
Wire with sharp points to discourage livestock from touching fences. Invented by Joseph Glidden.
milking machine
To replace hand milking. Milks cows and goats. Invented by Anna Baldwin.
tractor
source of power for belt-driven machines, as well as for pulling. Invented by Benjamin Holt
legume
a plant that hosts nitrogen-fixing bacteria
tofu
a Chinese food made by boiling and crushing soybeans, coagulating the resulting soy milk, and pressing the curds into desired shapes.
Katahdin
a popular potato variety of the 1930s
BelRus
a superior baking potato bred to grow well in the Northeast
Russet
a baking potato variety best adapted for growth in sandy volcanic soils
aerosol
a can with contents under pressure
Beltsville Small White
a breed of turkey that weighs only 8 to 12 lb at maturity
Green Revolution
a process whereby many countries became self-sufficient in food production in the 1960s by using improved plant varieties and proven management practives
feedstuff
any edible material used for animals
selective breeding
mating adults who have characteristics desired in the offspring
genetic engineering
movement of genes from one cell to another
monoclonal antibodies
natural substances in blood that fight diseases and infections
Mastisis
an infection of the milk-secreting glands of cattle, goats, and other milk-producing animals.
Coccidiosis
a disease that costs poultry growers nearly $300 million per year
Impatiens
a popular, easy-to-grow, summer-flowering plant.
hybrid
the offspring of a plant or animal derived from the crossing of two different species or varieties
deficiency
occurs when a nutrient is not available in the amounts that are needed for optimum growth
lasers
devices used to determine wavelengths given off by plants
Improvement by Selection
Picking the best parents for the next generation.
Selective Breeding
Mating adults who have characteristics from parent to offspring.
Genetics
The biology of heredity.
Heredity
Transmission of characteristics from parent to offspring.
Genes
Components of cells that determine the characteristics of living things.
Generation
The collective offspring of common parents.
Progeny
Offspring.
Deoxyribonucleic Acid (DNA)
Coded genetic material in a cell.
Clone
Exact duplicate.
Genetic Engineering
Movement of genes from one cell to another.
Nucleic Acid
Original name for deoxyribonucleic acid.
Bases
Genetic material that connects strands of DNA.
Mapping
The process of identifying the location of a specific gene on a chromosome.
Guanine
A base in genes designated by the letter G.
Adenine
A base in genes designated by the letter A.
Cystosine
A base in genes designated by the letter C.
Thymine
A base in genes designated by the letter T.
Gene Splicing
The process of removing and inserting genes in cells.
Recombinant DNA Technology
Gene splicing.
Gene Mapping
Finding and recording the locations of genes in a cell.
Ice-minus
Bacteria that retard frost formation on plant leaves.
X-Gal
Compound that causes marked bacteria to turn blue.
Bovine Somatotropin (BST)
Hormone that stimulates increased milk production in cows.
Porcine Somatotropin (PST)
Hormone that increases meat production in swine.
Insulin
Chemical used to control blood sugar levels.
Production Agriculture
Farming and Ranching.
Agriscience Processing, Products, and Distribution
Industry that hauls, grades, processes, packages, and markets commodities from production sources.
Horticulture
The science of producing, processing, and marketing fruits, vegetables, and ornamental plants.
Forestry
Industry that grows, manages, and harvests trees for lumber, poles, posts, panels, and many other commodities.
Agriscience Supplies and Services
Businesses that sell supplies and agencies that provide services for people in agriscience.
Agricultural Mechanics
Design, operation, maintenance, service, selling, and use of power units, machinery, equipment, structures, and utilities in agriculture.
Profession
Occupation requiring an education, especially law, medicine, teaching, or the ministry.
Agriscience Professions
Professional jobs dealing with agriscience situations.
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