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135 terms

Body Systems 3 final study guide

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99m Technetium
Radioisotope used in nuclear medicine (tracer studies)
Abduction
Muscle movement away from the mid-line of the body
Absence seizure
petit mal seizure; minor form of seizure, consisting of momentary clouding of consciousness and loss of contact with the environment
Acetylcholine
neurotransmitter chemical released at the ends of nerve cells
adduction
muscle movement toward the mid-line of the body
analgesia
absence of sensitivity to pain
Anesthesia
lack of feeling or sensation
Angiography
process of recording blood vessels using contrast and x-ray
AP view
anteroposterior; X-rays travel from an anteriorly placed source to a posteriorly placed detector
aphasia
inability to speak; language function is impaired due to injury to the cerebral cortex
apraxia
inability to perform purposeful acts or manipulate objects
arachnoid membrane
middle layer of the meninges that surround the brain and spinal cord
arteriography
x-ray recording of arteries; contrast is injected
arthrogram
record of a joint
arthrography
x-ray imaging of a joint after injection of contrast material
astrocytes
glial cells that transport salts and water from capillaries
ataxia
without coordination
aura
peculiar sensation appearing before more definite symptoms
axon
microscopic fiber that carries a nervous impulse along a nerve cell
barium enema
a lower gastrointestinal series that opacifies the lumen (passageway) of the large intestines using an enema containing barium sulfate
bradykinesia
slow movement
cauda equina
collection of spinal nerves bellow the end of the spinal cord
causalgia
intensely unpleasant burning pain in a limb following damage to nerves
cerebellum
part of the brain that coordinates muscle movements and maintains balance
cerebral angiography
x-ray record of blood vessels in the brain after intravenous injection of contrast material
cerebral cortex
outer region of the cerebrum
cerebral hemorrhage
bursting of an artery in the brain
cerebral palsy
partial paralysis and muscular coordination caused by loss of oxygen or blood flow to the cerebrum during pregnancy or in the perinatal period
cerebrum
largest part of the brain; responsible for voluntary muscular activity, vision, speech, taste, hearing, thought, and memory among other funtions
cholangiography
x-ray recording of bile vessels (ducts) using radiopaque contrast medium
cine-
movement
cineradiography
use of motion picture techniques to record a series of x-ray images
computed tomography
diagnostic x-ray procedure whereby a cross-section image of a specific body segment is produced.
contrast studies
materials (contrast media) are injected to obtain contrast with surrounding tissue when shown on the x-ray
dementia
mental decline and deterioration
dendrite
microscopic branching portion of a nerve cell; first part of nerve cell to receive the nervous impulse
dopamine
neurotransmitter in the central nervous system; deficient in patients with Parkinson Disease
dura mater
thick outermost layer of the meninges surrounding the brain and spinal cord
dyslexia
difficulty in reading writing and learning
dysphasia
difficulty in speaking or with speech
echocardiography
high energy sound waves are transmitted into the chest and images are recorded of the valves, chambers, surfaces and movement of the heart
embolus
a blood clot that is carried in the bloodstream from one area of the body to another where it blocks a blood vessel
esthesi/o
nervous sensation
eversion
turning outward
extension
increasing the angle between two bones and straightening a limb
flexion
decreasing the angle between two bones, as in bending a limb
fluorescence
emission of glowing light that results from exposure to and absorption of radiation from x-ray
fluor/o
luminous; fluorescence
fluoroscopy
process of using x-rays to produce an image on a fluorescent screen
gait
manner of walking
glial cells
nervous system cell that is supportive and connective in function: astrocyte, cicroglial cell, and ependymal cell
glioblastoma
rapidly growing malignant tumor of the brain
glioblastoma multigorme
highly malignant brain tumor composed of glial cells (astrocytes)
gyri
sheets of nerve cells that produce a rounded fold on the surface of the cerebrum
hemi-
half
hemiparesis
slight paralysis of the right or left half of the body
hydrocephalus
accumulation of fluids in the spaces of the brain
hyperesthesia
excessive sensitivity or feeling, especially of the skin in response to touch or pain
hysterosalpingogram
x-ray record of the uterus and fallopian tubes
hysterosalpingography
x-ray recording of the uterus and fallopian tubes after injection of contrast material
in vitro
process, test or procedure performed, measured or observed outside a living organism
in vivo
process, test or procedure performed, measured or observed within a living organism
in vivo test
trace the amount of radioactive substances within the body
interventional radiology
therapeutic procedures performed by a radiologist
intravenous pyelogram
IVP; a radiological procedure used to visualize abnormalities of the urinary system, including the kidneys, ureters, and bladder.
is/o
same
IVP
intravenous pyelogram
lateral decubitus
lying down on one's side with the x-ray beam horizontally positioned
lucent
to shine
magnetic resonance imaging
magnetic waves and radio waves produce images of organs and tissues in all three planes of the body
medulla oblongata
lower part of the brain closest to the spinal cord; controls breathing, heartbeat and size of blood vessels
meninges
three membranes surrounding and protecting the brain and spinal cord
meningomyelocele
the spinal cord and the meninges protrude to the outside of the body
multiple sclerosis
destruction of the myelin sheath on neurons in the CNS and its replacement by plaques of sclerotic tissue
myasthenia gravis
autoimmune neuromuscular disorder characterized by weakness (asthenia)of voluntary muscles (attached to bones)
myel/o
spinal cord
myelin sheath
fatty white covering over the axon of a nerve cell
myelogram
x-ray record of the spinal cord
myelography
x-ray image of the spinal cord after injection of contrast into the membranes surrounding the spinal cord
myoneural
pertaining to muscle and nerve
narcolepsy
sudden seizures of sleep
neurotransmitter
chemical messenger released at end of a nerve cell
neuropathy
disease of nerves; primarily in the peripheral nervous system
nuclear medicine
medical specialty that studies the uses of radioactive substances in the diagnosis of disease
oblique
positioned at an angle; an x-ray view
occlusion
blockage or obstruction
oligodendroglia
glial cell that forms the myelin sheath covering the axon of the neuron, they have few dendrites (oligodendrocytes)
opaque
obscure
palliative
relieving symptoms, but not curative
parenchymal cell
Esential cell of the nervous system (neuron)
paresthesia
abnormal nervous sensation occurring without apparent cause; examples are tingling, numbness, or prickling sensations
parkinson disease
degeneration of nerve cells that produce the neurotransmitter, dopamine in the brain; leads to tremors, weakness of muscles and slowness of movement
pia mater
thin, delicate, innermost membrane of the meninges
plexus
network of nerves outside the central nervous system; brachial, cervical, lumbosacral plexuses are examples
pons
part of the brainstem anterior to the cerebellum, between the medulla and the rest of the brain. The pons connects the upper and lower portions of the brain
positron emission tomography
computerized radiologic procedure using radioactive glucose or oxygen to image the metabolic activity of cells, such as brain cells
prone
lying in a horizontal position with face down
pyelography
x-ray recording of a kidney after injection of contrast material
quadriplegia
paralysis of all four limbs
radi/o
x-ray, radioactivity; radius
radiculitis
inflammation of the spinal nerve root
radioisotope
radioactive form of an element; radionuclide
radiolucent
permitting the passage of x-rays
radiopaque
obstructing the passage of x-ray
radiopharmaceutical
radioactive drug that is administered safely for diagnostic and therapeutic purposes
sagittal, frontal, and cross sectional images are produced using magnetic and radio waves
MRI
scintigraphy
A diagnostic test in which a two-dimensional picture of a body radiation source is obtained through the use of radioisotopes.
sensory nerve
carry messages to the brain and spinal cord from receptors; afferent nerves
son/o
sound
SPECT
single photon emission computed tomography
spina bifida
congenital defect in the lumbar spinal column caused by imperfect union of vertebral parts; spinal cord and meninges may herniate through vertibral gap
subarachnoid space
is the interval between the arachnoid membrane and pia mater. Contains cerebral spinal fluid
supine
lying horizontally on back with face upward
synapse
space between nerve cells or between nerve cells and muscles and glandular cells
syncopal
pertaining to syncope (fainting)
syncope
fainting; temporary loss of consciousness
tax/o
order, coordination
thalamus
main relay center of the brain; located in the central region or diencephalon of the brain
therapeutic
pertaining to treatment or therapy
tomography
process of taking a series of images to show an organ in layers or depth
tonic-clonic
stiffening of muscles and twitching and jerking movements of the limbs
tonic-clonic seizure
major seizure affecting the brain in epilepsy; grand-mal seizure
tourette syndrome
Neurologic disorder characterized by multiple facial and other body tics
tracer studies
radionuclides are attached to chemicals, used as tags or markers, and followed as they travel through the body
transducer
hand held device that sends and receives ultrasound signals
transient ischemic attack
fleeting episode of ischemia in the brain
ultrasonography
the use of high frequency sound waves beyond the range of normal hearing to produce a record or picture of an organ or tissue
upper GI series
(UGI); involves oral ingestion of barium sulfate so that the esophagus, stomach and duodenum can be visualized
uptake
rate of absorption of radionuclide into an organ or tissue
vag/o
vagus nerve
vagotomy
incision of the vagus nerve
ventricles
cerebrospinal fluid filled canals in the brain
vitr/o
glass
viv/o
life
what does a radiologist do
studies x-rays and related procedures for diagnosis